Project

# Title Team Members TA Documents Sponsor
19 Ready-to-Serve Trash Bin
Dongming Liu
Josh Litao
Owen Xu
Jason Zhang design_document1.pdf
final_paper1.pdf
photo1.png
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photo3.jpg
presentation1.pdf
proposal1.pdf
proposal2.pdf
video
# Title
Ready-to-Serve Trash Bin

# Team Member

- Owen Xu (jinyuxu2)
- Dongming Liu (dl35)
- Josh Litao (jlitao2)

# Problem
One of the biggest challenges people will face after their surgery is immobility. During the hospitalized recovery period, many issues will arise including how they can throw their trash. Clearly it’s not possible to let the patients stack all the trash on the bed, so the easiest solution is to have a trash bin next to their bed. However, existing trash bins have various problems. Open-lid ones will spread bad odor across the room; and those with the lid are hard to use for patients, patients have to step on the foot pedal or use the other hand to trigger the sensor, both are hard for patients recovering on the bed. Moreover, having a trash bin next to each bed in hospitals may increase the labor force needed to clean these bins.


# Solution
We propose a smart trash bin that would distinguish a human's hand gesture of throwing trash. The bin will serve as a “taxi” in the hospitals. Once the cameras, which are installed in the hospitals, detect that someone did a hand gesture of throwing trash, the bin, with wheels attached to its bottom, will receive this signal, move towards that person and automatically open the lid. With this smart trash bin, instead of placing various bins in different places, everything needed is to wave hands and wait for a couple seconds, then our smart trash bin will come to serve. The bin would also be useful for people with immobility problems at home, like those who are in wheelchairs or recovering on bed at home after small surgery.


# Questions & Answers:
- Q1. If the bin detects a person is about to throw trash, will the time be enough for the bin to open the lid to hold trash thrown by the person?
- A1: Using this bin is like hailing a taxi. If people need to throw trash, they can just wave their hands. Once the camera detects this gesture, the trash bin will come to that person who waves the hand. The person will then throw the trash into the bin. During the process, there’s no need for people to hold their trash all the time. The bin will be closed when it is traveling, and open once it reaches the target position. The target position should be somewhere around that person, instead of the exact position of him/her. As otherwise the bin will just hit on that person


- Q2. Is it possible that people are not intended to throw trash but their movement is incorrectly recognized by the camera for saying that they want? And why don't just replace this part by phone app, or a button?
- A2. The hand gesture of hailing a taxi, aka calling the trash bin to serve, is relatively unique, which means people seldom do the same gesture in daily normal life. So, the camera should not mistakenly recognize someone who does not want to throw trash as he/she does. Meanwhile, using hand gestures is more convenient when considering some old people do not know how to use smart phones. Button will have the similar problem to the traditional trash bins. Patients have to reach to the button first before they can throw their trash, which sometimes could be difficult to do.

- Q3. When the bin is traveling, is it possible that the odor of trash can get spread across the room? Or is the bin sealed?
- A3. In our design, the moving trash bin is relatively small, the sum of three dimensions will be smaller than 45 inches. It will mainly be responsible for collecting residual waste, and some small amount of food waste. Since food waste is usually responsible for bad odor, having little of these in the trash bin will not be an issue, and spreading bad smell across the room by the bin is a case that would barely happen. Meanwhile, people with immobility usually need help from others, either family members or nurses or hospital orderly, to get their meal prepared, who can also take care of the food waste from each meal. Thus, we don’t have to worry much about the problem of producing large amounts of food waste.

- Q4. What if the bin is serving someone and at the same time someone else needs to throw trash?
- A4. A queue will be recorded for who requests to be served by the trash bin, and the bin will follow the first-raise_hand-first-serve rule.


# Solution Components:
## Container:
The purpose of it is to store trash. It needs to have a lid to contain the odor.
### Parts:
A Indoor trash bin [link1](https://www.amazon.com/Amazon-Basics-Compact-Bathroom-Plastic/dp/B09Z776HYJ/ref=sr_1_7_ffob_sspa?crid=GW1WVZRZ7N7D&keywords=plastic%2Btrash%2Bbin&qid=1706151356&sprefix=plastic%2Btrashbin%2Caps%2C103&sr=8-7-spons&sp_csd=d2lkZ2V0TmFtZT1zcF9tdGY&th=1), [link2](https://www.amazon.com/Superio-Plastic-Bedroom-Bathroom-Kitchen/dp/B08YRZ98KY/ref=sr_1_9?crid=2CGATST9J1PZW&keywords=plastic%2Btrash%2Bbin%2Bwith%2Blid%2Band%2Bpedal&qid=1706151417&sprefix=plastic%2Btrash%2Bbin%2Bwith%2Blid%2Band%2Bpadel%2Caps%2C117&sr=8-9&th=1), or similar items.

## Trash Bin Movement:
The trash bin needs to reach the user based on the commands coming from the detection system.

### Parts:
- a pair of DC motors (model: TBD with mechanical shop to see which type of motor fits better).
- a pair of caster wheels. For supporting and balancing the trash bin. [Link](https://www.amazon.com/Furniture-Plastic-Casters-Kitchen-Stainless/dp/B09Q37G919/ref=sr_1_1_sspa?keywords=small%2Bcasters%2Bwheels&qid=1706152011&sr=8-1-spons&sp_csd=d2lkZ2V0TmFtZT1zcF9hdGY&th=1)

The control circuit of the motors will be part of the PCB.

## Trash Bin Lid Control:
The trash bin needs to open when it is necessary (i.e. when the user needs to put the trash in the bin) and remain closed for the rest of the time. This can be done using a servo motor. In addition, the lid can only open outward.

### Parts:
- a servo motor (model: TBD with mechanical shop to see which type of motor fits better)
Note: probably this one [Link](https://www.amazon.com/Smraza-Digital-Steering-Waterproof-Control/dp/B0886H91DY?ref_=ast_sto_dp)

The control circuit of the servo motor will be part of the PCB.

### MCU:
ESP32-S3 has WiFi and Bluetooth integration, so it is better for receiving commands from the detection system. The MCU is also in charge of controlling the trash bin movement and the lid movement. It is a part of the PCB.

Potential MCU model: ESP32-S3-WROOM-1 [link](https://www.espressif.com/en/products/socs) (S3 series)

## Motion and Object Detection:
Motion and object detection will be implemented using computer vision and some open-source models. They will be deployed to a microcomputer (single-board computer). The camera captures the image or video stream for motion and object detection. When the person does a specific gesture, it commands the trash bin to move to the person. When the trash bin is closed enough, it commands the trash bin to open the lid. After collecting the trash, the trash bin will navigate back to its original position based on the commands.

### Parts:
- Raspberry-Pi-4 with 2GB or 4GB [Link](https://www.digikey.com/en/product-highlight/r/raspberry-pi/raspberry-pi-4-model-b)
- Raspberry-Pi camera module [Link](https://www.amazon.com/Smraza-Raspberry-Megapixels-Adjustable-Fish-Eye/dp/B07L2SY756)

Note: if the computation is not good enough, we will use Nvidia Jetson.

## Power:
Trash bin movement and trash bin lid control will be powered by a lithium battery, and motion and object detection is powered by a wall-plugged power supply, given that the subsystem for motion and object detection is stationary.

### Parts:
- Lithium battery: TBD
- Wall-plugged power supply: [Link](https://www.amazon.com/Raspberry-Supply-iUniker-Switch-Listed/dp/B097P2NLVH/ref=sr_1_3?adgrpid=1330409638929056&hvadid=83150817070992&hvbmt=be&hvdev=c&hvlocphy=95058&hvnetw=o&hvqmt=e&hvtargid=kwd-83150957904950%3Aloc-190&hydadcr=24365_13514965&keywords=raspberry+pi+4b+power+supply&qid=1706150750&sr=8-3)

# Criteria For Success:
1. Be able to recognize people’s hand wave gestures for throwing trash.
2. Travel to people who need to throw trash. The lid of the bin should remain closed until it reaches that person.
3. The target position should be close to the person but not the exact position.
4. Follow the first-wave-hand-first-serve rule.
5. Be able to receive control command from the motion and object detection system


Musical Hand

Ramsey Foote, Thomas MacDonald, Michelle Zhang

Musical Hand

Featured Project

# Musical Hand

Team Members:

- Ramesey Foote (rgfoote2)

- Michelle Zhang (mz32)

- Thomas MacDonald (tcm5)

# Problem

Musical instruments come in all shapes and sizes; however, transporting instruments often involves bulky and heavy cases. Not only can transporting instruments be a hassle, but the initial purchase and maintenance of an instrument can be very expensive. We would like to solve this problem by creating an instrument that is lightweight, compact, and low maintenance.

# Solution

Our project involves a wearable system on the chest and both hands. The left hand will be used to dictate the pitches of three “strings” using relative angles between the palm and fingers. For example, from a flat horizontal hand a small dip in one finger is associated with a low frequency. A greater dip corresponds to a higher frequency pitch. The right hand will modulate the generated sound by adding effects such as vibrato through lateral motion. Finally, the brains of the project will be the central unit, a wearable, chest-mounted subsystem responsible for the audio synthesis and output.

Our solution would provide an instrument that is lightweight and easy to transport. We will be utilizing accelerometers instead of flex sensors to limit wear and tear, which would solve the issue of expensive maintenance typical of more physical synthesis methods.

# Solution Components

The overall solution has three subsystems; a right hand, left hand, and a central unit.

## Subsystem 1 - Left Hand

The left hand subsystem will use four digital accelerometers total: three on the fingers and one on the back of the hand. These sensors will be used to determine the angle between the back of the hand and each of the three fingers (ring, middle, and index) being used for synthesis. Each angle will correspond to an analog signal for pitch with a low frequency corresponding to a completely straight finger and a high frequency corresponding to a completely bent finger. To filter out AC noise, bypass capacitors and possibly resistors will be used when sending the accelerometer signals to the central unit.

## Subsystem 2 - Right Hand

The right subsystem will use one accelerometer to determine the broad movement of the hand. This information will be used to determine how much of a vibrato there is in the output sound. This system will need the accelerometer, bypass capacitors (.1uF), and possibly some resistors if they are needed for the communication scheme used (SPI or I2C).

## Subsystem 3 - Central Unit

The central subsystem utilizes data from the gloves to determine and generate the correct audio. To do this, two microcontrollers from the STM32F3 series will be used. The left and right hand subunits will be connected to the central unit through cabling. One of the microcontrollers will receive information from the sensors on both gloves and use it to calculate the correct frequencies. The other microcontroller uses these frequencies to generate the actual audio. The use of two separate microcontrollers allows for the logic to take longer, accounting for slower human response time, while meeting needs for quicker audio updates. At the output, there will be a second order multiple feedback filter. This will get rid of any switching noise while also allowing us to set a gain. This will be done using an LM358 Op amp along with the necessary resistors and capacitors to generate the filter and gain. This output will then go to an audio jack that will go to a speaker. In addition, bypass capacitors, pull up resistors, pull down resistors, and the necessary programming circuits will be implemented on this board.

# Criterion For Success

The minimum viable product will consist of two wearable gloves and a central unit that will be connected together via cords. The user will be able to adjust three separate notes that will be played simultaneously using the left hand, and will be able to apply a sound effect using the right hand. The output audio should be able to be heard audibly from a speaker.

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