|1||Automatic Pegboard Item Retrieval
|Nikhil Arora||Victoria Shao||design_document1.pdf
Oftentimes, when one has a lot of books/miscellaneous items, it can be very hard to keep track of everything. Things can get lost and disorganized very quickly. Something like a pegboard is what some use to organize their items, but they often can get very messy and it can be very tedious to find a specific item that one is looking for. It can also take a lot of time to find an item, and in general this is a bad user experience.
Our solution features a 4-sided pegboard, each side containing different sections to place items, that rotates using a motor at the base of the pegboard. This pegboard will aid the user in finding their items easier by detecting when and where an item is inserted or removed from the pegboard. On insertion, the pegboard will use sensors to detect where the item is placed. On retrieval, the user will be able to look up the item on the app, which will result in the pegboard rotating to the correct side, and lighting up the shelf and specific location where that item is located.
# SOLUTION COMPONENTS
- Wood: Used to create the frame, pegs, and legs. This will be created mainly by the mechanical shop such that we can connect the legs to the motor and the motor to the frame
- Motor: Placed between the legs and bottom of the frame to rotate the bookshelf
- 360 Degree Potentiometer - Used to keep track of rotation location
- Phone Application - Used by users to define what side and section of the pegboard they are placing/retrieving an item
- LEDs - placed at each section around the pegboard. When the user looks up an item, the LEDs in that section will light up
- PCB: Arduino board; mainly because Arduino control with motors, LEDs, and potentiometers will be relatively simple
- Here is how the user interaction would work:
1. Each pegboard section will be fitted with a QR code that is assigned to the section it is placed in. For example, 1A would represent side 1 and section A of the pegboard. Likewise, 4D would be side 4 and section D of the pegboard.
2. Each of these sections would be connected to two parts: First, each QR code is also connected to the LEDs of that section such that when a user retrieves an item of a specific section, those LEDs would light up.
3. Second, the QR code would be connected to the app. When the user selects a specific section, the app will mark that section as occupied and when the user retrieves that item, the section will be marked as free
Essentially, when the user scans the QR code, the app will allow them to mark that area as occupied with an object.
# CRITERION FOR SUCCESS
A successful bookshelf would consist of the user being able to effectively input a description of the item being placed, the bookshelf detecting where the item is being placed, and the bookshelf successfully depicting where a requested item is by spinning to the correct location and lighting up where it is.
|2||GROUND-BREAKING NEXT-GEN SMART PET DOOR
|Abhisheka Mathur Sekar||Victoria Shao||design_document1.pdf
|Ground-Breaking Next-Gen Smart Pet Door
Norbert Szczotka (nszczo2)
Jeffrey Deng (jdeng13)
Matthew Wei (mswei2)
Have you ever had to leave work or school to let your dog outside? Have you ever needed to pay dog-sitters and give them access to your home? Introducing the ground-breaking Next-Gen Smart Pet Door, which is designed to convenience both pets and their owners when it comes to technology and pet care. This project specifically aims to create a pet door which opens and closes based on motion-detection through real-time camera monitoring viewed through our own smartphone app. Pet owners have full access in giving their loved ones the ability to roam freely remotely. The app includes full functionality of the door, which gives users the ability to open and close the door based on the display of the camera.
As described in our problem statement, it will provide customers with a pet door that allows the users to open it remotely. At a high level, our design will revolve around modifying an existing door to fit our dog door. This dog door is controlled by the user through a phone app. Subsystems of this design include the app, the door, the sensors, the power system, and the camera. Motion detectors will be used to alert the customer when the pet is near the door and needs to enter. A camera will also be used to prevent unwanted visitors or other animals from entering. The door will close after some time has passed to prevent the door from being always open. In addition, the app can also be used to manually cancel the door open and close it immediately. This system will be on both sides of the door, so the pet can get in and out and not be trapped outside.
This subsystem is the part of our design that senses movement and feeds live video. Once the sensors get triggered, a notification will be sent to the app and the cameras will start sending live feed as well. We will need sensors for motion detection, cameras for live feed, and a wireless transmitter to feed video to the app for the owner to see.
This subsystem will be the mechanical side of our project. It will involve a stepper motor connected to a simple rolling pulley system that we will design. It will be a small version of the actual product and will be bolted onto a piece of plywood to demonstrate its functionality. It will have an opening and closing function.
This subsystem contains the controls for the door. It will receive the video feed from the cameras as well as send out controls to the door to open and close when necessary. This part of the project will be entirely software based and will go off of the wireless transmitter on the other subsystems to send and receive the required signals.
Camera The camera will be activated from the microcontroller to send a live feed locally to a laptop which will in turn upload to our application. This allows us to workaround the limitations of cheap pcb scale cameras.
Power Supply Our power supply system will include a high-quality 12V battery specifically for its capacity and stability for power. To meet the demands of other subsystems, we will need to incorporate voltage regulation techniques to control and stabilize the output voltage based on load conditions. Our design will use step-down voltage regulators for our microcontroller to minimize power flowing through to avoid damage.
Criterion For Success
For the end of our project, we expect the project to be fully functional. We need to make sure the sensor can accurately detect motion and alert the camera to turn it on. This alert must also be able to send a signal to our app and feed the camera feed to the app. The app from here must be able to work properly (buttons and camera). The button when pressed should be able to successfully send a signal to the door and cause it to open. The door should be able to close after a certain amount of time has passed on its own and stop the camera feed from being sent to the app. This same criteria should be applied to the other side of the door as well. Once all these functions are working properly, then we can determine the project is effective.
|3||WHEELED-LEGGED BALANCING ROBOT
|Tianxiang Zheng||Victoria Shao||design_document1.pdf
|# WHEELED-LEGGED BALANCING ROBOT
## Team Members:
- Gabriel Gao (ngao4)
- Zehao Yuan (zehaoy2)
- Jerry Wang (runxuan6)
The motivation for this project arises from the limitations inherent in conventional wheeled delivery robots, which predominantly feature a four-wheel chassis. This design restricts their ability to navigate terrains with obstacles, bumps, and stairs—common features in urban environments. A wheel-legged balancing robot, on the other hand, can effortlessly overcome such challenges, making it a particularly promising solution for delivery services.
The primary objective of this phase of the project is to demonstrate that a single leg of the robot can successfully bear weight and function as an electronic suspension system. Achieving this will lay the foundation for the subsequent development of the full robot.
# Solution Components
## Subsystem 1. Hybrid Mobility Module:
Actuated Legs: Four actuator motors (DM-J4310-2EC) power the legged system, enabling the robot to navigate uneven surfaces, obstacles, and stairs. The legs also functions as an advanced electromagnetic suspension system, quickly adjusting damping and stiffness to ensure a stable and level platform.
Wheeled Drive: Two direct drive BLDC (M3508) motors propel the wheels, enabling efficient travel on flat terrains.
**Note: 4xDM4310s and 2xM3508 motor can be borrow from RSO: Illini Robomaster** - [Image of Motors on campus](https://github.com/ngao4/Wheel_Legged_Robot/blob/main/image/motors.jpg)
The DM4310 has a built in ESC with CAN bus and double absolute encoder, able to provide 4 nm continuous torque. This torque allows the robot or the leg system to act as suspension system and carry enough weight for further application. M3508 also has ESC available in the lab, it is an FOC ESC with CAN bus communication. So in this project we are not focusing on motor driver parts. The motors would communicate with STM32 through CAN bus with about 1 kHz rate.
## Subsystem 2. Central Control Unit and PCB:
An STM32F103 microcontroller acts as the brain of the robot, processing input from the IMU through SPI signal, directing the motors through CAN bus. The pcb includes STM32F103 chip, BMI088 imu, power supply parts and also sbus remote control signal inverter.
Might further upgrade to STM32F407 if needed.
Attitude Sensing: A 6-axis IMU (BMI088) continuously monitors the robot's orientation and motion, facilitating real-time adjustments to ensure stability and correct navigation. The BMI088 would be part of the PCB component.
## Subsystem 3. Testing Platform
The leg will be connected to a harness as shown in this [sketch](https://github.com/ngao4/Wheel_Legged_Robot/blob/main/image/sketch.jpg). The harness simplifies the model by restricting the robot’s motion in the Y-axis, while retaining the freedom for the robot to move on the X-axis and jump in the Z-axis. The harness also guarantees safety as it prevents the robot from moving outside its limit.
## Subsystem 4. Payload Compartment (3D-printed):
A designated section to securely hold and transport items, ensuring that they are protected from disturbances during transit. We will add weights to test the maximum payload of the robot.
## Subsystem 5. Remote Controller:
A 2.4 GHz RC sbus remote controller will be used to control the robot. This hand-held device provides real-time control, making it simple for us to operate the robot at various distances. Safety is ensured as we can set a switch as a kill switch to shutdown the robot in emergency conditions.
**Note: Remote controller model: DJI DT7, can be borrow from RSO: Illini Robomaster**
The remote controller set comes with a receiver, the output is sbus signal which is commonly used in RC control. We would add an inverter circuit on pcb allowing the sbus signal to be read by STM32.
Note: When only demoing the leg function, the RC controller may not be used.
## Subsystem 6. Power System
We are considering a 6s (24V) Lithium Battery to power the robot. An alternative solution is to power the robot through a power supply using a pair of long wires.
# Criterion For Success
**Stable Balancing:** The robot (leg) should maintain its balance in a variety of situations, both static (when stationary) and dynamic (when moving).
**Cargo Carriage:** The robot(leg) can be able to carry a specified weight (like 1lb) without compromising its balance or ability to move.
**If we are able to test the leg and function normally before midterm, we would try to build the whole wheel legged balancing robot out. It would be able to complete the following :**
**Directional Movement:** Via remote control, the robot should move precisely in the desired direction(up and down), showcasing smooth accelerations, decelerations, and turns.
**Platform Leveling:** Even when navigating slopes or uneven terrains, the robot should consistently ensure that its platform remains flat, preserving the integrity of the cargo it carries. Any tilt should be minimized, ideally maintaining a platform angle variation within a range of 10 degrees or less from the horizontal.
**Position Retention:** In the event of disruptions like pushes or kicks, the robot should make efforts to return to its original location or at least resist being moved too far off its original position.
**Safety:** During its operations, the robot should not pose a danger to its surroundings, ensuring controlled movements, especially when correcting its balance or position. The robot should be able to shut down (safety mode) by remote control.
|4||Instant Nitro Cold Brew Machine
|Jialiang Zhang||Arne Fliflet||design_document1.pdf
|# Instant Nitro Cold Brew Machine
- Mihir Vardhan (mihirv2)
- Danis Heto (dheto3)
Cold brew is made by steeping coffee grounds in cold water for 12-18 hours. This low-temperature steeping extracts fewer bitter compounds than traditional hot brewing, leading to a more balanced and sweeter flavor. While cold brew can be prepared in big batches ahead of time and stored for consumption throughout the week, this would make it impossible for someone to choose the specific coffee beans they desire for that very morning. The proposed machine will be able to brew coffee in cold water in minutes by leveraging air pressure. The machine will also bring the fine-tuning and control of brewing parameters currently seen in hot brewing to cold brewing.
The brew will take place in an airtight aluminum chamber with a removable lid. The user can drop a tea-bag like pouch of coffee grounds into the chamber along with cold water. By pulling a vacuum in this chamber, the boiling point of water will reach room temperature and allow the coffee extraction to happen at the same rate as hot brewing, but at room temperature. Next, instead of bringing the chamber pressure back to atmospheric with ambient air, nitrogen can be introduced from an attached tank, allowing the gas to dissolve in the coffee rapidly. The introduction of nitrogen will prevent the coffee from oxidizing, and allow it to remain fresh indefinitely. When the user is ready to dispense, the nitrogen pressure will be raised to 30 PSI and the instant nitro cold brew can now be poured from a spout at the bottom of the chamber.
The coffee bag prevents the coffee grounds from making it into the drink and allows the user to remove and replace it with a bag full of different grounds for the next round of brewing, just like a Keurig for hot coffee.
To keep this project feasible and achievable in one semester, the nitrogenation process is a reach goal that we will only implement if time allows. Since the vacuum and nitrogenation phases are independent, they can both take place through the same port in the brewing chamber. The only hardware change would be an extra solenoid control MOSFET on the PCB.
We have spoken to Gregg in the machine shop and he believes this vacuum chamber design is feasible.
# Solution Components
## Brewing Chamber
A roughly 160mm tall and 170mm wide aluminum chamber with 7mm thick walls. This chamber will contain the brew water and coffee grounds and will reach the user-set vacuum level and nitrogenation pressure if time allows. There will be a manually operated ball valve spout at the bottom of this chamber to dispense the cold brew once it is ready. The fittings for the vacuum hose and pressure sensor will be attached to the screw top lid of this chamber, allowing the chamber to be removed to add the water and coffee grounds. This also allows the chamber to be cleaned thoroughly.
## Temperature and Pressure Sensors
A pressure sensor will be threaded into the lid of the brewing chamber. Monitoring the readings from this pressure sensor will allow us to turn off the vacuum pump once the chamber reaches the user-set vacuum level. A temperature thermocouple will be attached to the side of the brewing chamber. The temperature measured will be displayed on the LCD display. This thermocouple will be attached using removable JST connectors so that the chamber can be removed entirely from the machine for cleaning.
## Vacuum Pump and Solenoid Valve
An oilless vacuum pump will be used to pull the vacuum in the brewing chamber. A solenoid valve will close off the connection to this vacuum pump once the user-set vacuum pressure is reached and the pump is turned off. To stay within the $100 budget for this project, we have been given a 2-Stage 50L/m Oil Free Lab Vacuum Pump on loan for this semester. The pump will connect to the chamber through standard PTFE tubing and push-fit connectors
If time allows and we are able to borrow a nitrogen tank, an additional solenoid and a PTFE Y-connector would allow the nitrogen tank to connect to the vacuum chamber through the same port as the vacuum pump.
## LCD Display and Rotary Encoder
The LCD display allows the user to interact with the temperature and pressure components of the brewing chamber. This display will be controlled using a rotary encoder with a push button. The menu style interface will allow you to control the vacuum level and brew time in the chamber, along with the nitrogenation pressure if time allows. The display will also monitor the temperature of the chamber and display it along with the time remaining and the current vacuum level.
# Criterion For Success
- A successful cold brew machine would be able to make cold brew coffee at or below room temperature in ten minutes at most.
- The machine must also allow the user to manually control the brew time and vacuum level as well as display the brew temperature.
- The machine must detect and report faults. If it is unable to reach the desired vacuum pressure or is inexplicably losing pressure, the machine must enter a safe ‘stop state’ and display a human readable error code.
- The reach goal for this project, not a criterion for success, would be the successful nitrogenation of the cold brew.
|5||Automatic Beverage bottle sorting bin
|Sanjana Pingali||Victoria Shao||design_document1.pdf
Jingjie He (jingjie8)
Jiajun Huang (jiajunh4)
Tianyu Yu (tianyuy4)
Garbage bins for bottles are typically placed near vending machines. These bins often feature separate holes: one for metal cans and one for plastic bottles. However, many individuals do not adhere to these sorting instructions, resulting in misplaced items.
We propose an advanced garbage bin equipped with an automatic sorting system. This bin will have a singular entrance where users deposit bottles. The system will then automatically determine whether the bottle is made of plastic or metal. Additionally, it will be designed to reject objects, such as waste paper, which is small enough and can be inserted into the hole.
The metal detector will generate a magnetic field and sense any alterations caused by the presence of metal, thus identifying metal bottles.
Mechanical sorting system
This system, driven by a motor and microcontroller, will grasp the bottle during the detection phase. After identifying the material, it will release the bottle, ensuring it falls into the correct bin.
Located within the sorting chamber, this system will assess both the size and weight of the deposited object. Using pressure sensors on a series of pistons, it will determine if the object dimensions and weight correspond to that of a typical bottle. Objects that don’t meet the criteria will be rejected.
Two container to hold the garbage.
Criterion For Success
A successful bottle sorting bin should be able to correctly sort plastic bottles and metal cans into different bins. It should also be able to reject objects that do not posses characteristics (shape and structural strength) akin to bottles.
|6||[Pitched Project] Specialized Camera for Medical Applications
|Jason Zhang||Arne Fliflet||design_document1.pdf
|## Team Members:
Jason Jung (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Isha Akella (email@example.com)
Amartya Bhattacharya (firstname.lastname@example.org)
_Our RFA is based on Professor Gruev’s pitched project for a small specialized camera for medical applications._
What humans can see is limited and subjective. In a medical context, the ability to capture a variety of spectra, including those invisible to the naked eye, can improve the assessment abilities of a medical professional, especially in surgical tasks. For instance, combining color imaging with NIR bands can help to locate and distinguish between tumors and surrounding tissues. Multispectral imaging enhances inspection capabilities for various applications.
## Solution Overview:
Our project will be a handheld device with an integrated camera sensor that can perform multispectral imaging across UV, visible, and NIR spectra with real-time visualization across different windows. Our solution is novel compared to other medical handheld imaging devices, such as endoscopy cameras, due to the ability to capture multiple spectra.
## Solution Components:
Camera subsystem (sensor, lens, and filter):
* MIPI-compatible monochrome image sensor with at least 1MP resolution
* Pixel size of ~15.6 micrometers or smaller
* Lens with focal length that can accommodate relative spatial resolution of 10 microns across an area of 1cm x 1cm
* Pixelated multispectral filter array (area scan) for UV, visible, and near IR (NIR) spectrums
* Dual bandpass filter attachment that blocks wavelengths in the ~270-290 nm and 770-790 nm range while allowing all other wavelengths to go through
* MIPI and USB compatible microcontroller able to process 20MB of image data per second
* Image processing for RGB, UV, and NIR segment spectra in real-time
* Wired device of maximum power ~2 Watts
* The entire system will be enclosed in a pen-like structure
* The size will be roughly around 1in x 1in x 5in
## Criterion For Success:
A successful specialized camera device would be in a handheld enclosure, able to display video retrieved by the camera subsystem in real-time at 10-20 frames/second and sense signals in the visible, UV, and near-infrared spectra.
For demonstration purposes, we will show the real-time video of the camera subsystem running at a rate of 10-20 frames/second. We will implement image processing to separate the segments of visible, UV, and NIR signals and display them in real-time across different windows.
We will use LEDs in our demonstration to show we can capture video in the visible light spectrum. Additionally, we will use imaging phantoms for UV and NIR, which are fluorophore molecules that will fluoresce when excited by specific wavelengths.
|7||Smart Plastic Container Recycling System
|Jeff Chang||Victoria Shao||design_document2.pdf
|# Smart Plastic Container Recycling System
- Jennifer Chen (jc46)
- Smruthi Srinivasan (smruthi2)
- Jason Wright (jasonlw2)
Recycling is growing more and more important as we aim to tackle the effects of climate change. Unfortunately, a lot of people don't know how to properly sort and separate their trash from recycling. In fact, estimates show that over 50% of waste ends up in landfills instead of being recycled.
While other countries have effectively taught their population how to correctly recycle their items from a young age, the United States lacks education on proper recycling. This leads to contamination of other recyclables, ultimately preventing them from being recycled. We usually think of plastics as recyclable, but depending on the jurisdiction, some plastics may not be able to be recycled and if they are, they run the risk of contaminating all of the other recyclables.
The solution to this problem is a device with an imaging system that can read the symbols printed on plastic containers. The device will be mounted by a recycling container. We would have a camera part of the system that reads the numbers and potentially the letters next to the symbols (https://learn.eartheasy.com/articles/plastics-by-the-numbers/) and also a GPS sensor that determines what location we are in. That information will then be utilized to determine if this plastic can be recycled in that area or not using an API. Once the determination has been made, the UI will tell the user if they can recycle the item or not. Some plastics have the number embedded in the recycling sign while others have it printed next to the sign and the system will determine both forms of the symbol.
# Solution Components
- Microcontroller (ATmega32u4)
- GPS sensor (NEO-6MV2)
- Camera (IMX 219 NVIDIA Jetson)
## PCB and Microcontroller
The microcontroller will take in the data gathered from the camera to process the symbol listed on the plastic containers. The image processing will be done using open source computer vision and machine learning libraries. The microcontroller will also receive the location data from the GPS subsystem.
## Sorting Actuator
This subsystem would consist of a servomotor and a plate to set the disposable item on. Once a decision has been made on if the item is recyclable, the plate can rotate in one of two directions to drop the item into either a trash or recycling bin. Any servo with position feedback would do, such as the FEETECH FS5106B-FB.
## Camera Subsystem
This subsystem requires the user to locate the symbol on their plastic container and point it at the camera. The camera will capture the symbol and transmit that image data to the microcontroller. It will be mounted on a counter in or near the kitchen.
## GPS Subsystem
The GPS sensor will be located on our custom PCB. It will be used to track the current location and will transmit this data to the microcontroller.
## User Interface
The user interface will show if the plastic can be recycled once the location and camera data is received. To make the determination, the location and camera data will be used to make an API call that retrieves information about plastics recycling. The final determination will be displayed on a LCD display next to the camera mount.
## Power Supply
As a mounted item, it would make the most sense to use a wall outlet to supply power. Mounted Power Converters could then supply the various DC voltages needed for different components.
# Criterion For Success
The project is successful if the system is able to identify the symbols on the plastic containers and determine if the item can be recycled in the area. The UI will indicate this information to the user and the sorting system will dispose of the item in the proper bin.
1. Camera detects the plastic being positioned in front of it and system is able to identify the symbol listed on the plastic container
2. GPS location sensor determines the user’s location and pulls the data regarding recycling in that area
3. System correctly determines if container is recyclable or not, accurately conveys that information to the user via the LCD display, and places the container in the proper bin
|8||Plant Irrigation and Monitoring System
|Sainath Barbhai||Olga Mironenko||design_document1.pdf
|# Plant Irrigation and Monitoring System
- Kevin Le (kevinle2)
- John Burns (jeburns2)
- Carlos Toledo (ctoledo2)
Gardening is a skill that takes a lot of intensive care and effort as each individual plant has its respective living condition it must meet. These living conditions such as required sunlight, minimum amount of water, and climate vary from plant to plant and it can be very difficult to be attentive to all these details in keeping your plants in the best possible condition as we are occupied with our busy lives or simply lack the skill. Watering outdoor plants can be very tedious and a task often forgotten.
Our solution to this is to micro-manage all of the important aspects in the living necessities of a plant and take these variables to form an algorithm to create a smart irrigation system. This system will help the user monitor a single plant or more. Conditions including extreme heat and significant rain will affect how the system reacts. Ambient temperature, soil moisture levels, and light intensity will be reported to the user. In terms of current competitors on the market, other similar products are limited to the number of plants that can be monitored and require a water pump. This system will be modular and can be linked together to build a larger system. Other systems only measure the moisture content within the first couple inches of the surface and do not connect directly to a water hose. Our solution will water the plant till the whole pot is moist. Using Solenoid valves in connection to a garden hose for irrigation, a single plant can be configured to have a minimal moisture level, providing the most desirable conditions for your plant, or a connect system can be created via dixie chaining,
There is a similar project from Spring 2023 but there are significant differences. The Project i and referring to is the "Don't Kill My Plant" Habit Tracker. Their project converts phone habits to watering / environmental changes. Our project aims to care for the plant in an outdoor setting and allows for multiple plants to be taken care of. Another similar project is DIY Plantify
from Spring 2023. This project moves plants away from light if it is too intense and tests moisture levels based on weight. Again, very different from our water irrigation system.
# Solution Components
- **Single-Plant Monitoring:** The base system focuses on the care of one plant, allowing for precise and customized care/monitoring.
- **Daisy-Chaining:** Users can easily expand the system by adding more boards, each responsible for monitoring and irrigating a different plant.
- **Customizable Irrigation:** Users can set specific watering schedules and conditions based on the needs of each plant, ensuring efficient water use.
- **Soil Moisture Evaluation:** The algorithm assesses the soil moisture level using data from the moisture sensors. If the soil is too dry, it may trigger the need to notify the user when the plant reaches its configured minimum moisture rating. Depending on the moisture level, water will be dispensed to adjust the moisture to a desirable level to any plant in the ecosystem.
- **Decision Making:** Based on the analysis of the sensor data, the algorithm decides whether to provide additional water when minimum needs are not met for the plant(s).
## Moisture Level Compensation:
- Solenoid Valve - 12V - 1/2"
- Grove - Moisture Sensor
Using Moisture sensors, the moisture of any given plant will be reported and used for detecting the need for watering, creating configurable moisture levels. When moisture levels are below the preset minimum level for any configured plant, the Solenoid valve will be opened. Until the satisfied level is reached, water will provide water to the system of plants. Surface level and based moisture sensors will determine the amount of water the plants need.
## User Interface + App
- 1604 LCD 16x4 Module
- wifi / bluetooth module
Using an on-board and web application for the configuration of the Automatic Mini-Garden Cover, the user can configure the system to provide the optimal direct light and help the user monitor the plant’s environmental conditions. As a web application, using React and or Node.js, the user can configure their plants from their phone or computer.
# Criterion For Success
Criterion for Success for the Plant Irrigation and Monitoring System: The fundamental success factors revolve around the system's ability in providing optimal moisture for plants by closely monitoring their individual soil moisture levels. It must provide users with the flexibility to effortlessly tailor watering schedules and preferences for each plant, ensuring that their unique requirements are met with precision.
Scalability stands as a key aspect, with the system designed to be modular, allowing for straightforward expansion to accommodate an evolving garden. Simultaneously, it should possess the intelligence to autonomously address low moisture levels by promptly activating the irrigation system and notifying users when their attention or intervention is necessary.
The user interface, whether accessed on the device itself and or through a web-based platform, should exemplify user-friendliness, dependability, and accuracy, offering real-time insights into the conditions of each plant within the garden.
Durability and compatibility remain essential, ensuring the system seamlessly integrates with the typical garden hose setup, and can withstand exposure to outdoor elements without compromising functionality.
Furthermore, the system should actively encourage the creation of a scalable ecosystem, enabling users to expand their garden while maintaining consistent care standards, thus solidifying its status as a valuable tool suitable for gardeners of all experience levels.
|9||Smart Person-Following Luggage System
|Abhisheka Mathur Sekar||Olga Mironenko||design_document1.pdf
|# Smart Luggage System with Triangulation and Directional Control via UWB- Request for Approval (RFA)
- Varun Singhal (varuns7)
- Shubham Gupta (sg49)
- Jai Anchalia (jaia2)
Imagine traveling with 2 - 50 lb check-in items of luggage and a carry-on bag along with a bag pack all ALONE. It can be a hassle, especially in an airport environment when the passenger is stressing about where to go for their next flight. Even if there is a cart available, it is inconvenient to carry it around everywhere due to its size.
To address the problem, we propose the development of a Smart Person-following Luggage System. This system employs four DW1000 sensors (ultra wide band) for triangulation, ultrasonic sensors for collision avoidance, an ESP32 microcontroller for control, and a specialized motorized system for precise movement.
Our proposed solution is a luggage system that autonomously follows the user while avoiding obstacles and adjusting its direction as needed. The four DW1000 sensors will provide triangulation data for accurate positioning via the ultra wide band tranreciver technology. These four sensors would be on the luggage system and are called "anchors". We will have a tag that the user will carry. This tag would be another ESP32 along with a DW1000 sensor. Now, the anchors along with the tag can accurately create a local positioning system. Ultrasonic sensors will detect obstacles, including people, while the ESP32 microcontroller processes sensor data and calculates the optimal path. The motorized system comprises two motors (differential drive) and two 360-degree wheels as support.
# Solution Components
## Luggage Sensors
The use of four DW1000 sensors enables triangulation for precise angle resolution. These sensors use Time of Flight (ToF) to get distances up to 10cm accuracy upon which we can calculate the vector. Note: This is the same tech in Apple's Air Tag.
## Luggage Tag
This tag will be carried by the person. The tag comprises an ESP32, DW1000, and a rechargeable battery pack. The luggage system will follow this tag.
## Ultrasonic Sensors
Ultrasonic sensors detect obstacles and trigger collision avoidance actions.
## ESP32 Microcontroller
The ESP32 microcontroller processes data from DW1000 sensors and ultrasonic sensors, coordinating the luggage's movement and path planning.
## Motorized System
The luggage will be equipped with two DC gear motors and two 360-degree wheels for support. The microcontroller will adjust the motor speeds for optimal movement. It will be a differential drive.
# Criterion For Success
Required task for demo:
Luggage will follow person through 2nd floor of ECEB at an average distance of 1 meter +/- 0.5 meters.
Project Overall Requirements:
1. The system accurately tracks the user's location using four DW1000 sensors and maintains a safe following distance.
2. Ultrasonic sensors detect obstacles and prompt appropriate collision avoidance maneuvers.
3. The ESP32 microcontroller effectively processes sensor data and coordinates movement, ensuring the luggage follows the user and avoids collisions.
4. The motorized system provides smooth and precise directional control, allowing the luggage to navigate through various environments.
|10||Camera Inventory System for ECE 445 Components
||Krish Naik Aparaj
|Sanjana Pingali||Olga Mironenko||design_document1.pdf
|# Camera Inventory System for ECE 445 Components
- Krish Naik Aparaj (krishn2)
- Rohan Harpalani (rohanhh2)
- Rushil Duggal (rduggal2)
The current inventory system for students to borrow parts for the ECE 445 Senior Design project is very manual and tedious for the TA's. It requires the student providing their NetID and physically showing the TA's which components they are taking and having the TA's manually record who took what part. This same process has to be repeated at the end of the semester when students have to return their parts and when certain parts aren't returned, it becomes the TA's responsibility to try to track the student down to get the parts back. There are also security concerns in terms of taking parts and not returning them at the semester, ending up in a loss for the ECE department.
Our solution plans to eliminate the need for TA’s to be present during the part retrieval and return process. We plan on having the components in a locked box and the components are all tagged with a QR code. For the component retrieval process, the student would have to scan their iCard and then the box would unlock. Once they pick out the components they need, they would scan the QR code to the camera attached to our microcontroller on the box and in the backend, we would store a record of which student took what component. To account for students potentially not scanning components, we would have another camera in the upper corner of the room for security purposes to monitor if the student took any unscanned components. For the returning process, the student would scan their iCard to unlock the box and then scan the components once more to indicate that they are returning the components. In the backend, we would be able to keep track of which student is returning what component. At the end of this, the TA’s can have a report of which students still have components to return, thus automating the process in a secure way.
# Solution Components
## Locked Box
A container to hold the components within and uses a strike lock to securely lock and unlock the box.
## RFID Identifier System
A system where the iCard is read by the RFID system and then stores the student information and also unlocks the box with the components in it.
## PCB + Report Generation
The PCB will incorporate an ESP32 Micrcontroller along with two camera peripherals (one for scanning the components and one for security purposes). The microcontroller will also take information on the student and store that with the component information to create a report for the TA’s to track the components.
## QR Codes and QR Code Scanner
Need to assign each component a unique QR code to scan each item and need to implement code to enable the camera to scan the QR code and identify the item.
# Criterion For Success
A successful inventory system should be able to correctly generate a report every time a student scans their iCard to open the box and correctly identify either a return or borrow when the student holds the component to the camera. Along with the report, a video recording of the student when either returning or borrowing the component should be stored in the backend for security purposes.
|11||Cat Laser Tower
|Jialiang Zhang||Victoria Shao||design_document2.pdf
Cat owners are sometimes busy or out of the house, and cats need stimulation. An automatic toy that interacts with them would be a useful way to keep them active in a safe and healthy way.
# SOLUTION OVERVIEW
Our solution for this is to construct a scratching pole mounted automatic laser toy that will use extra sensors ,signal processing, and programming to allow the cat toy to avoid furniture, and to react to the cat and allow it to catch the dot. This will require a distance measuring laser, and a motion sensor.
# SOLUTION COMPONENTS
## SENSOR SUBSYSTEM
- The first sensor is a laser that measures distance. This needs to be incorporated into the laser mount in close parallel with a pet safe laser. The distance laser will be used during set-up of the toy, and will map out the play space to create a logical map of where the furniture is based on reference and boundary points on the floor input by the user.
- The second sensor is a motion sensor that is set to detect when the cat is moving in front of the laser toy. This will be mounted in the base of the scratching post allows the toy to react to the cat chasing the toy laser.
- There is a pressure sensor that will exist within the scratching post that can turn the laser pointer on when the cat scratches the post.
- The motion of the laser toy will require a spherical joint that can move at a reasonable speed. The joint will need to be able to mount input and output of the distance sensor, the pet safe laser.
- The motion sensor will need to be able to be adjusted to point in the center of the designated play space.
## CONTROL SYSTEM
- The system will be controlled by a microcontroller interfaced with the user interface.
## USER INTERFACE
- Input to the system will be taken via manual buttons on the base of the device. The control will have an up, down, left, right, and select arrows.
- A small hex based LED screen will allow for the user to set time, and indicate during which times it should be active.
- The device will be battery powered.
# CRITERION FOR SUCCESS
Our solution can map out a room and determine where the furniture is, and successfully avoid the furniture, as well as react to the cat dynamically. The cat will be able to turn the laser on by scratching the scratching post.
Current cat toys move the lasers at random, which means that cats can't actually 'catch' the laser, and the laser doesn't actually react to the cat. Many cats find this boring. The current commercial cat toys also move with no consideration to the layout of furniture in the room. This leads to either limited scope as to where the laser can go so as to avoid furniture, or cats jumping onto furniture and scratching it up in attempts to get to the laser. Our solution is different, because it processes data to map out the room and uses the data to limit its range of motion, reacts to the motion of the cat as it attempts to catch the laser, and can chain together a number of mini routines that are not just random motion.
|12||Automatic Cat Litter Box
|Nikhil Arora||Arne Fliflet||design_document1.pdf
|# Team members
Shihua Cheng (shihuac2)
Michael Duan (hduan5)
Jonathan Chang (jwchang4)
Modern automatic cat litter boxes automate waste removal but frequently neglect the crucial issue of odor control. Over time, as these systems accumulate waste, odors can intensify, causing discomfort for both cats and owners. Given cats' highly sensitive sense of smell, they detect these odors well before humans do. This oversight poses a challenge for maintaining a fresh and hygienic litter box environment, which can create an unpleasant living environment, pose health concerns, reduce usability,and contribute to stress and anxiety.
Current automatic litter boxes also often lack the capability to track the duration and frequency of a cat's litter box usage. This information is crucial for monitoring the health of the cat. Changes in litter box behavior, such as prolonged visits or increased frequency of use, can indicate potential health concerns such as urinary tract infections or digestive issues. Without the ability to capture and analyze this data, cat owners miss out on valuable insights that could help them proactively address their pet's well-being.
The proposed solution centers around a cat litter box with motorized raking mechanisms for scooping.
Weight sensors will be positioned beneath the litter box, each with a casing to prevent unwanted material from making contact. These sensors are responsible for initiating the motorized raking process upon detecting the entry and exit of the cat. Beyond triggering waste disposal, these sensors will also act as the means to monitor the cat. By continuously capturing data, they quantify the duration of each cat visit, the frequency of visits, and the weight of the cat itself. This information will be communicated to the user through their phone.
Odor sensors will be placed within the hood of the litter box, designed to detect and monitor the buildup of odors in real-time. As the sensors detect increasing levels of ammonia and other odor-producing compounds, they will trigger an automated odor-neutralizing process and a notification to the user. This proactive approach aims to tackle unpleasant odors as soon as they emerge, ensuring a fresh environment for the cats and allowing time for the owner to combat the odor once they receive the alert.
# SOLUTION COMPONENTS
Microcontroller: ESP32 microcontroller for data processing, controlling the motors, and communication.
Weight Sensors: For detection, monitor of the cat and the waste compartment.
Odor Sensors: For monitor of the litter box
Motors: For raking the waste and releasing odor-neutralizing compounds.
Power Supply: Wall Outlet
# CRITERION FOR SUCCESS:
The success of the solution will be evident through the following criteria:
Accurate Detection: The litter box should consistently and accurately detect the cat's presence, usage, and departure. It should also be able to detect the state of the litter box with respect to odor.
Communication to User: The user should be provided basic real-time notifications, conditions of the litter box, and insights to behavioral patterns of their cat.
|13||Tesla Coil Guitar Amp
|Jason Paximadas||Arne Fliflet||design_document1.pdf
|# Tesla Coil Guitar Amp
* Griffin Rzonca (grzonca2)
* David Mengel (dmengel3)
Musicians are known for their affinity for flashy and creative displays and playing styles, especially during their live performances. One of the best ways to foster this creativity and allow artists to express themselves is a new type of amp that is both visually stunning and sonically interesting.
We propose a guitar amp that uses a Tesla coil to create a unique tone and dazzling visuals to go along with it. The amp will take the input from an electric guitar and use this to change the frequency of a tesla coil's sparks onto a grounding rod, creating a tone that matches that of the guitar.
# Solution Components:
## Audio Input and Frequency Processing -
This will convert the output of the guitar into a square wave to be fed as a driver for the tesla coil. This can be done using a network of op-amps. We will also use an LED and phototransistor to separate the user from the rest of the circuit, so that they have no direct connection to any high voltage circuitry. In order to operate our tesla coil, we need to drive it at its resonant frequency. Initial calculations and research have this value somewhere around 100kHz. The ESP32 microcontroller can create up to 40MHz, so we will use this to drive our circuit. In order to output different notes, we will use pulses of the resonant frequency, with the pulses at the frequency of the desired note.
## Solid-state switching -
We will use semiconductor switching rather than the comparably popular air-gap switching, as this poses less of a safety issue and is more reliable and modifiable. We will use a microcontroller, an ESP 32, to control an IR2110 gate driver IC and two to four IGBTs held high or low in order to complete the circuit as the coil triggers, acting in place of the air gap switch. These can all be included on our PCB.
## Power Supply -
We will use a 120V AC input to power the tesla coil and most likely a neon sign transformer if needed to step up the voltage to power our coil.
## Tesla Coil -
Consists of a few wire loops on the primary side and a 100-turn coil of copper wire in order to step up voltage for spark generation. Will also require a toroidal loop of PVC wrapped in aluminum foil in order to properly shape the electric field for optimal arcing. These pieces can be modular for easy storage and transport.
## Grounding rod -
All sparks will be directed onto a grounded metal rod 3-5cm from the coil. The rest of the circuit will use a separate neutral to further protect against damage. If underground cable concerns exist, we can call an Ameren inspector when we test the coil to mark any buried cables to ensure our grounding rod is placed in a safe location.
## Safety -
Tesla coils have been built for senior design in the past, and as noted by TAs, there are several safety precautions needed for this project to work. We reviewed guidelines from dozens of recorded tesla coil builds and determined the following precautions:
* The tesla coil will never be turned on indoors, it will be tested outside with multiple group members present using an outdoor wall outlet, with cones to create a circle of safety to keep bystanders away.
* We will keep everyone at least 10ft away while the coil is active.
* The voltage can reach up to 100kV (albeit low current) so all sparks will be directed onto a grounding rod 3-5cm away, as a general rule of thumb is each 30kV can bridge a 1cm gap.
* The power supply (120-240V) components will be built and tested in the power electronics lab.
* The coil will have an emergency stop button and a fuse at the power supply.
* The cable from the guitar will use a phototransistor so that the user is not connected to a circuit with any power electronics.
# Criterion for Success:
To consider this project successful, we would like to see:
* No safety violations or injuries.
* A tesla coil that produces small visible and audible 3-5cm sparks to our ground rod.
* The coil can play several different notes and tones.
* The coil can take input from the guitar and will play the corresponding notes.
|14||The Remote Wah Guitar Pedal
|Stasiu Chyczewski||Victoria Shao||design_document1.pdf
The Remote Wah: Remote Activated Guitar Effect
Julian Brookfield (jbrook32)
Chris Read (clread2)
Luna Rathod (drathod2)
Guitar and bass players have a wealth of effects pedals to choose from in order to modify the sound of their instrument, such as adding distortion, echo, reverb, etc. In most cases, the parameters for effects pedals are set by the player beforehand and turned on and off with a footswitch, or controlled by a foot treadle to modify a single parameter, such as the sweep of a high-Q bandpass filter in a wah pedal. However, this requires the player to remain fixed in place while using the effect, which can get in the way of the performance aspect of playing live music. It would be very helpful & expressive to have a way of controlling the parameters of certain effects while maintaining the ability to move around a stage unimpeded.
Our idea is that rather than using a foot treadle to control the filter sweep of a wah pedal (see [here](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lbENbvVIg0) for reference), the range of the filter sweep is controlled by a sensor mounted to the headstock of a guitar/bass. This allows achieving the characteristic sweep sound of a wah by swinging your guitar up and down rather than using a foot treadle, which allows the use of the effect anywhere on stage (after you switch it on) and makes for an interesting visual accompaniment that is suited for live performance (it would look pretty cool). To further aid in freedom of movement, the effect will have the ability to be remotely activated via a button mounted to the body of the guitar within convenient reach of the player.
# Solution Components
## Subsystem 1: Headstock Transmitter
This will be a small device mounted to the headstock of the guitar. It will include some sort of [IMU](https://www.digikey.com/en/products/detail/stmicroelectronics/LSM6DSMTR/6192777) to gather data about the motion of the guitar’s headstock as it moves up and down. This data is then transmitted wirelessly to the receiver pedal through a prefabricated RF module such as [this](https://www.signetik.com/product/M1-N1). The transmitter will run off of commonly available button-cell batteries and include a simple power indicator LED and an on/off switch that is activated before/after a performance, respectively. It should be housed in a small non-metal (probably 3D-printed) enclosure to allow transmission of RF signals, and should be attached to the headstock via an elastic strap. For simplicity, the transmitter will continuously send data to the receiver while it is on, however this can later be changed to sleep while the effect is off and transmit data only when the effect is on in order to save battery life.
## Subsystem 2: The Activator Button(s)
This will be a small button that is placed in a convenient location on the body of the guitar. This button sends a wireless signal to the receiver pedal to turn the effect on and off, also through the aid of a prefabricated RF module. It will similarly be powered by a coin cell battery, include a power LED and on/off switch that is used the same way as the transmitter, and be housed in a small 3d-printed enclosure. However this device will be mounted to the guitar body via some sort of stick-on adhesive, and eventually could be attached via custom plates which can attach to screws on the pickguards found on most guitars. While we only need a single button to engage the single wah effect contained in the receiver to start with, this can be expanded to contain multiple buttons that can control multiple effects built into the receiver (such as adding a distortion circuit) and even external pedals via extra I/O jacks.
## Subsystem 3: The Pedal Receiver
This will be the main heart of the project and is functionally divided into an analog half and a digital half. The analog half will include the wah effect & bypass circuit that the guitar is routed through. A large part of the classic sound of wah effects has to do with the particulars of which inductor is used to create the peaking filter, so this part is best left analog. It also avoids any latency in the guitar signal since the audio path remains completely analog. The digital half will receive and process the button and IMU data into useful control signals that control the analog half. This includes processing the raw IMU data into a useful range that controls a digital potentiometer, which in turn controls the sweep of the analog filter in the wah effect side. This sweep must be calibrated by a footswitch, which is configured before the performance to allow for any range of motion of the guitar to generate a useful sweep of the wah. The range of the sweep will be formatted to control a [digital potentiometer](https://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Microchip-Technology/MCP4018T-103E-LT?qs=%2FsslhGPpiOSWJSDZcNYXEg%3D%3D), which will interface to the MCU with I2C, thus the MCU has to process the IMU data into a range that controls the digital potentiometer across its full sweep. The button data will also be processed into a control voltage that switches signal relays/analog muxes to either activate or bypass the wah effect.
All this will require two complementary receiver RF modules (or a single module with multiple antennas) in order to receive data, and will primarily run off of an STM MCU, such as the [STM32F3](https://www.digikey.com/en/products/detail/stmicroelectronics/STM32F3DISCOVERY/3522185). There are many [standard prefabricated pedal enclosures](https://lovemyswitches.com/enclosures/) available that allow for easy housing. Additionally, this pedal can run off of a [9V DC power supply](https://truetone.com/1-spot/) that is standard for effects pedals, meaning power consumption isn’t an issue.
If time allows, this receiver system can be expanded to include signal routing for more built-in effects and external effects pedals via extra buttons on the activator device as mentioned previously. In the end, this project could form the basis of a whole line of products, including wirelessly controlled single-effect pedals and wireless pedalboard controllers which are guitar-mounted.
# Criterion For Success
The receiver is able to process the raw transmitter IMU data into a usable digital potentiometer sweep.
The activator button is able to turn the effect on and off.
Successful interfacing between receiver microcontroller data and circuit hardware (switching effect on and off, controlling sweep of a pot).
|15||Cheap Digital Leg Tracker
|Zicheng Ma||Victoria Shao||design_document1.pdf
- Qing Wang(qingw3)
- Diana Long (aslong2)
- Joseph Cho(hyunjae4)
For all commercial VR headsets, Meta Oculus Quest, Apple Vision Pro, HTC Vive, etc., hand gesture control is necessary for people to interact with the virtual world. However, for people with disabilities, those actions may not be possible. With the ever-growing use of virtual reality in both commercial and business use, a solution to allow these people to access and use VR is needed. Although motion tracking technology is already available in the market, they tend to be expensive.
By creating a device that can track your leg movement, Virtual Reality controllers for those who are impaired in their arms or hands are possible to make. We shall design a motion tracker that consists of cheaper parts that will allow the user’s leg to be registered as a motion digitally, allowing for more affordable controllers to exist using technology similar to the current VR controllers.
We will be using cameras to track the movement of the foot, as currently most motion tracking technology uses very high end cameras. We will be cutting costs by using cheaper cameras with a lower framerate but maximizing their usage. We will also be using accelerometers that will be attached on the user’s legs. Using the data these sensors collect, we can perform sensor fusion which will allow our device to track motion as if it was using a higher framerate camera.
The subsystems of our device are the individual working components: the cameras, the casing, internals, and a PCB.
- The cameras will be 30 fps, as this will allow us to design an efficient system for less money. This subsystem is where a lot of our cost reduction comes from as well, as tracking typically uses cameras with a much higher framerate.
- The casing will be made of material that is sturdy, such as plastic, but also has padding to be comfortable on the user’s leg, like a cloth. This will allow for safe transportation of the internals and ease of use.
- The internals will consist of an accelerometer, which will also track acceleration data of the user’s legs.
- The data from the two sensors will be received by a PCB which will then combine the data through sensor fusion which will make our device perform as if we’re using a single tracking device. `https://www.udacity.com/blog/2021/01/how-sensor-fusion-works.html `
**Criterion For Success:**
The criterion for success of this project is how much the tracking system could track the movement of legs. Each subsystem is individually testable, and can each be their own criterion. If a subsystem works individually, then it is considered a success, as it will work even when combined with other subsystems. Another criterion is the low cost of our product. If our product is not affordable by the public, then it will not have accomplished its goal. Furthermore, reliability is also important for extended use of our device and ease of use in any interior building. We will test if this system is reliable under most conditions, such as low light, room scale spaces, and sunlight interference. If the test succeeds, then our product will be accessible and functional to our target audience, as well as it being simple to utilize from a consumer’s perspective. If these conditions are met, then our project will be a success.
|16||ChipCaddy: Home Poker Game Solution
|Nikhil Arora||Olga Mironenko||design_document1.pdf
Justin Wang (jmwang5)
Anish Rajesh (rajesh4)
Marvin Camras (mcamras2)
According to a market research study published by Zion Market Research, the demand analysis of Global Trading Card Game Market size & share revenue was valued at $6.39 Bn in 2022 and is estimated to grow about $11.57 Bn by 2030. As the market for card games increases, so does the need for accurate, secure, and efficient home game systems. Current home games are set up with a simple set of chips, cards, and players, resulting in large amounts of time wasted counting, sorting, and dealing chips. Casinos are well equipped with the endowment to purchase top-end counting mechanisms such as RFID poker chips or table-embedded chip counting mechanisms, but these machines cost thousands of dollars on average and are not suited for the casual home game.
Games such as Omaha are pot-limited, meaning the max bet players can make is the amount of chips currently in the pot. With the current home game system, players must hand count the amount of chips currently in the pot, as well as manually sort and dispense chips after each and every hand. This results in not only a large amount of time wasted, but also makes it easy for players to steal chips and miscount the current value of the pot.
In addition to this, calling players all-in values requires manually counting each stack of chips by hand, which can lead to incorrect values and a lot of wasted time. Online games have an automatic display of each player's stack, resulting in almost 3 times faster gameplay according to Upswing Poker.
Our solution features a combination of sensors, motors, and internal logic to sort, dispense, and identify the current value of the pot. After a hand, the chips will be pushed into a hopper which will straighten the chips into a stack. This hopper will have a color sensor at the base, as well as a rotating disk that uses a servo motor to rotate the disk and place each chip in its own separate tubular container based on its color value. The color sensor will relay the color of the chip to the microcontroller, which will handle the logic and display the current pot value on an LCD display. When the winner of a pot is determined, the chips will be dispensed out of their individual containers in their respective organized stacks with a number of servo motors. In the rare case of a split pot, the user will be able to press a button that dispenses the pot in halves or thirds.
Our solution will greatly increase the efficiency and enjoyment of a regular home poker game. Rather than wasting valuable time counting pots, distributing plastic chips, and arranging chips in neat color coordinated towers, players can focus on having fun and playing.
Display: To provide the players with real time information during games, we will implement LCD Display that shows the current pot counter at all times.
Color and Light Sensor: Used to identify the chips which allows us to send them down to an organized dispenser for each stack of chips. Will be attached between the original entry point of the chips and the chip sorting mechanism.
Motor: Servo Motors will be needed for two primary tasks: directing the path of organized chips, and dispensing them. They will be placed between the Sensor and the network of tubes that controls the path of each chip that is put into the sorter. Would also need motors for dispensing. Will use Servo Motors.
Button: User will need an interface to interact with the dispenser and the pot splitter.
Power Supply: Will attach a power supply on the side of the counter, which will meet all the power requirements of each component in the system.
MCU (Microcontroller Unit): We will use an Arduino to assign specific values to each chip from the color sensor data and perform calculations for the pot counter total which will then be displayed on the LCD Screen. We will also use this to control the motor components for organizing the chips in their respective slots and for dispensing. It will also handle the calculations for dispensing chips to the winner of the pot and also in the rare event of a split pot we will also be able to divide by halves or thirds. By combining the sensors and the motors with the MCU, we will have an efficient home game system that will eliminate the tedious tasks of manually counting, sorting and distributing chips.
|17||Grid Independent Water Monitoring/Management System
|Abhisheka Mathur Sekar||Olga Mironenko||appendix1.pdf
|# Grid Independent Water Monitoring/Management System
- Anantajit Subrahmanya (as85)
- Grant McKechnie (granttm2)
- Jayanth Meka (jmeka2)
Current irrigation systems offer a way to set timers for scheduled watering. These solutions require a wired connection to an electrical controller and power source, which limits the locations in which irrigation systems can be installed. As climate change strains drought-prone regions that are also subject to power outages, it becomes increasingly important not only to minimize total water consumption, but to also have irrigation systems that work without external power.
Most systems require a central control unit that uses wires to communicate to all irrigation systems on a property. This method is expensive to install and is at risk to damage that could cause the whole irrigation system to fail. These wires are thin and usually located underground which makes them especially prone to damage from animals like moles or rats. If the irrigation system stops working, it is extremely difficult to know where the source of the failure is.
We propose a solution to this problem in the form of a wireless self-powered irrigation system.
Through the utilization of a water powered turbine generator, we will power our whole irrigation system which includes batteries, valve control, and watering timers. The goal of this project is to make it as self contained as possible with an easy installation. If time permits, we would like to also modularize the design so that communication between different irrigation systems is possible. This system can still operate in the event of a power outage which are becoming increasingly common in rural areas during the dry seasons where water management is crucial.
Our device will fit the form factor of existing plumbing couplings (elbows, nipples, and other joints); in other words, it will appear to be a connector between two pipes/hoses. The device will be equipped with a turbine to generate a small current to power a battery which would then power an on-board microcontroller. This microcontroller will be responsible for valve control for watering plants at a given interval. This interval will be initially set by us, but we hope to incorporate soil sensing to enable real time watering interval calculation. The microcontroller should also wirelessly communicate with a base station located nearby, allowing users to manually control the system if needed. The base station, which is powered by a wired DC source, can aggregate data from all nearby valves/sensors and present them to the user.
# Solution Components
In order to ensure constant power to the microcontroller, we will need to figure out a way to power a battery which will then power the microcontroller. This ensures that the microcontroller always operates within the proper voltage and current requirements. This battery would most likely be a rechargable lithium ion battery housed within a waterproof container. The device that generates the power will be a turbine. The control for this battery management system could use live weather data (provided by the base station) in order to properly manage the charge/discharge cycles of the battery to ensure its longevity. The microcontroller will support two way communication with the base station to help with the control of the system.
We would most likely want to use a small water turbine generator to power our system. To implement this, we would split the water flow into two paths by using a T-connector. Both paths will have an electronic-controlled valve (see below for details) to control the water intake. One path would act as a bypass, connecting the water intake to the output (which waters the plants). The other path would include a turbine, which slowly recharges the battery, before rejoining main watering line. A microcontroller will control which valves are open and closed based on the state of the system. If we need to produce more power, the first valve will close and the second valve will stay open. If we have enough power and we need more pressure for the irrigation system output, then both values will open.
We intend to follow the Zigbee protocol, designating each valve-controller device as a Zigbee End Device, to facilitate communication between the base station and valves. Our chosen microcontroller family includes an integrated wireless modem, with certain SKUs capable of operating at less than 5mA in RX mode. It is important to note that Zigbee mandates the presence of a coordinator device, and in our setup, the irrigation hub acts as the coordinator for the network.
Microcontroller: [Nordic Semiconductor nRF52820](https://www.nordicsemi.com/Products/nRF52820)
Regarding the specifics for power requirements of the wireless system, the modem will sleep most of the time - we are considering tradeoffs between sleep time and responsiveness. Currently, we plan to use a watchdog based wake system for the modem, which will turn on the receiver for less than 50ms once ever 1+ seconds. By our rough estimate, this means that the average current draw in the idle/sleep state is less than 200uA. This number is used for our system-level energy estimates later in the FAQ.
There is significant room for future growth for the wireless side of this project. First, since many crop fields are large (and the zigbee standard's maximum range is 100m), any practical implementation would require extending this range. Zigbee allows for this through the use of routers (essentially repeaters), but these are generally powered from a wired source. If we have extra time, we will explore integrating Zigbee routers to be installed in the field, either powered by the valves themselves, or by some other renewable source of electricity.
## Sensing and Intelligence (Extension)
**If we complete the base requirements of our project, we would like to add sensing to our irrigation system.**
Reusing the existing power generation and storage module described above, a water-powered endcap/valve connected to sensors (moisture, for instance) can be placed anywhere along a pipe. Sensing units will be outfitted with a zigbee transmission unit, to communicate data back to the hub.
Based on the sensor readings and weather projections, the hub would be able to make decisions on if and when the watering system should be run for individual plants.
# Criterion For Success
On the high level, this project will be a success if our network of connected valves can properly manage irrigation cycles without external power dependence. Expanding upon our criterion for success, our system would be initialized with a battery charged to 80% of its theoretical capacity. From the base station, the user would initiate a watering cycle for 10 minutes (say, by pressing a button... for now. We would like to integrate IoT here as an extension of our project). After the watering cycle completes, we would demonstrate that the battery capacity is well-over 80% capacity (in theory, we should be able to get this to full for a sufficiently small battery. If all steps occur without issue, then we will consider our solution a success.
**Can you actually power the whole system with a water turbine? How will this affect the flow rate?**
Using this device, [a water turbine generator with a 1/2 inch diameter pipe size](https://www.amazon.com/Yosoo-Turbine-Generator-Micro-Hydro-Charging/dp/B00ZCBNNOC), 12VDC output voltage, and maximum current of 220mA (in calculations we use 110mA), it is possible to power all background processes of our system for at least 3 days using conservative estimates.
This [ball valve](https://ussolid.com/u-s-solid-motorized-ball-valve-1-2-stainless-steel-electrical-ball-valve-with-full-port-9-24-v-dc-2-wire-reverse-polarity.html) requires a minimum of 9VDC with a maximum watt rating of 2W. The valve takes 3-5s to fully open, but we only really need the valve to open at least half way to allow close to 100% water flow. This means that we only need around 1.5-2s for proper valve operation. It will take around 3-4J for one valve to open/close (this number will probably be higher in practice). Ideally we want a 100mAh battery at 3.3VDC which is around 0.33Wh (1188J). Taking into consideration the background processes, valve operation, and turbine generation, we will be able to power the whole system.
We have made many compromises to keep the wireless-component's power consumption as low as possible - specifically, we will have our modem aggressively sleep. The only issue with this is that there will be increased latency (if you try to open a valve remotely, it may take a while before it wakes up and receives the command).
The flow rate will not necessarily be impacted if the system is not charging. This is because each valve-controller will contain a T-junction, which splits the incoming source water into two paths. The first path is the main flow line, opened and closed by a value (this part functions like a regular irrigation system). The second path is the power generation line, which also has an electronically controlled input valve. Since we can close the power generation line at will, flow will not necessarily be impeded by the turbine.
We are making a couple assumptions about the use cases for our product.
1. Irrigation cycle occur regularly with moderate frequency (~3 days between irrigation). This allows us to use each watering cycle to charge for the next watering cycle (in other words, water is not flowing all the time).
2. Irrigation cycles last for 10+ minutes per watering event. This guarantees that we are able to generate enough power during each watering cycle for the device to have enough power to open the charging valve at the beginning of the next charge cycle.
3. Ball valves have >80% of the maximal flow rate, even when they are only 50% open. This informed our power calculations.
4. The microprocessor will sleep for 99% of the time (in other words, RX duty cycle is 1% or lower)
If either assumption 1 or assumption 2 are false, then it is possible that our device will lose power (and need a manual charging valve opening to resume operation).
We very intentionally excluded solar as a secondary power source because it would limit where the smart-valves can be installed (for example, it may be possible that the plant itself may cover the solar cell). Making the location of the solar panel configurable would make the system more cumbersome to install.
**How will we demostrate our project?**
We walked around the outside of the ECEB and found a Zurn Z1320/Z132 hydrant on the side of the building . All we need to access the water is a Zurn Hydrant Key - 3/8" Square Socket which can be obtained by contacting facilities. We can attach our project to this hydrant in order to demo the project.
|18||Self-Charging Automatic Bike Lock
|Jason Zhang||Victoria Shao||design_document1.pdf
- Paul Jeong (email@example.com)
- Rithik Morusupalli (firstname.lastname@example.org)
- Jake Li (email@example.com)
Stolen bikes are a big problem in Champaign, necessitating bike locks and alarms. However, basic bike locks are mechanical, and once broken, the bike can be easily stolen. Also, most bike alarms require a remote to enable and disable it.
Our solution to this issue is an automatic bike lock with an alarm system. This device will be attached to a bike with a clamp and will contain a physical locking mechanism and an alarm device. The physical lock will consist of a linear actuator that inserts itself through the wheel spokes (therefore preventing the wheel to spin) and touch sensors whose input will change the linear actuator’s state, while the alarm device will have a small speaker and a flashing light. The device’s microprocessor will also have bluetooth functionality. To lock and unlock the device, it has to be paired to the user’s phone with bluetooth and the user needs to correctly input the correct touch sequence into the touch sensor input. The device also contains a self charging subsystem, which will charge the device when the vibration sensor is triggered (bike is moving).
- PCB and Microcontroller: STM32WB55CCU7
- Power Subsystem: Lithium ion Battery (3.7V 2000mAh), Buck Boost regulator (LTC3115), Piezo Vibration Sensor (SEN-09196 ROHS)
- Charging Subsystem: 24V 30W 3500RPM DC Motor
- Bluetooth Subsystem: contained on the STM32WB55CCU7
- Touchpad Subsystem: TTP223B Capacitive Touch Sensor
- Physical Locking Subsystem: Mini Linear Actuator B07ZJ46947
- Alarm Subsystem: Piezo Vibration Sensor (SEN-09196 ROHS), Mini Speaker - PC Mount 12mm 2.048kHz (COM-07950 ROHS), ADDRESS LED RING SERIAL RGB (COM-14967)
**PCB and Microcontroller**
The STM32WB55CCU7 will require a bluetooth connection from a mobile device to access the touchpad subsystem. Then, a correct code from the touchpad subsystem is required to unlock the physical subsystem as well as disable the alarm subsystem. The microcontroller will make sure the bike is in motion with the vibration sensor in order to enable the charging subsystem. The charging subsystem will disable when there is no vibration detected based on a certain threshold to allow variables like wind and minor bumping. Then a correct code from the touchpad will enable the physical locking subsystem and enable the alarm subsystem.
This subsystem controls the overall interactions among all subsystems.
**Power Subsystem - heavily collaborates with the Charging Subsystem**
Our power subsystem will consist of a set of rechargeable Lithium ion Batteries (3.7V 2000mAh) in parallel that allows us to power the PCB and microcontroller. To ensure that we meet the demands of all of our subsystems while also ensuring even power distribution we also plan on including a Buck Boost regulator (LTC3115) to ensure no power spikes or drops affect the overall apparatus. Depending on the readings of the vibration sensor, the power system will either be in a state of charging through the charging subsystem, or in a state of discharging. If a certain amount of vibration is detected (ie you are riding the bike around) we want to shut off the discharge of the battery pack and allow it to recharge. If the amount of vibration is lower than a certain threshold (ie the bike is stationary) we want to begin discharging the battery pack and therefore power the entire system.
**Charging Subsystem - heavily collaborates with the Power Subsystem**
The DC motor will be attached to the rear axle and directly wired up to the main power subsystem through the buck boost regulator. As the rear wheel spins, the DC motor will spin along with it, therefore creating the kinetic energy that we will use to charge the rechargeable battery pack. The charging subsystem will only be active when there is bluetooth connection, meaning the user is near or riding the bike, and the vibration sensor detects enough movement.
The bluetooth subsystems act as the first level of security in our bike lock. It is controlled via the STM32WB55CCU7 microcontroller that has onboard Bluetooth 5.4. Once paired with the user’s mobile device, it will automatically connect when the mobile device is in range with bluetooth on. Thus allowing access to the second level of security in our overall locking subsystem
The second security level of our locking system. Once the Bluetooth signal is recognized and within our chosen activation range, the touchpad subsystem becomes activated. The user must then input the correct touch sequence on the array of TTP223B Capacitive Touch Sensors. If the correct sequence is met, then the physical locking subsystem will disengage or engage according to the previous state of the physical locking subsystem. We need this second level as more of a user safety device than an anti-theft mechanism. This will address the edge cases in which the Bluetooth device is within detectable range, but the owner does not wish for the physical lock to change states or when the user is riding the bike and loses their remote and it falls out of range.
**Physical Locking Subsystem**
This subsystem is the primary physical component of our system. Consisting of a linear actuator (Mini Linear Actuator B07ZJ46947) that extends through the wheel spokes when the lock is activated, the solenoid prevents the movement of the wheel the locking apparatus is clamped to. We plan for this subsystem to be attachable to either the front or rear wheel through the use of a clamping mechanism that connects to the different cylinders that make up a bicycle.
The inbuilt alarm subsystem to the overall system enclosure. This subsystem consists of both a LED that acts as a flashing light and a speaker that should act to draw attention to the fact that someone is attempting to steal a bike. This subsystem should be activated if the overall system is being tampered with. Including situations such as attempts to access the touch subsystem without the paired Bluetooth device nearby, repeated mistakes in the touch combination once the touch subsystem is activated, and the vibration sensor detecting large movements like attempting to force the solenoid closed.
**Criterion For Success**
- Portable locking system that has the capability to clamp onto different bikes and also not clutter the bicycle.
- Self-charging capability, utilizing the spin of the rear wheel to recharge the battery that powers the system.
- Two levels of security for the looking system. First, an onboard bluetooth device that allows access to the second level of security if the paired bluetooth device is within range of ~5ft (due to change)
- The second level of security is a keypad that acts as a touch combination lock that activates the physical locking mechanism.
- Alarm system (sound and flashing LED) that gets activated when the lock is tampered with without the paired bluetooth device present and/or the incorrect pin/touch combination.
|19||Aftermarket Hazard Detection System for Cyclists
|Tianxiang Zheng||Arne Fliflet||design_document1.pdf
|# Hazard Detection for Cyclists
Erik Ji, Adam Snedden, Ozgur Tufekci
[Google Docs mirror](https://docs.google.com/document/d/15jHzsdSbN0LpCIDwTOREneb6Yw3i28q1tb8iM1LLuuc/preview)
According to a study from the U.S. Department of Transportation, only 17 percent of personal vehicles have blind spot technology as a standard feature and 57 percent have it as an upgrade option . The number of personal vehicles equipped with the capabilities are on the rise, preventing an estimated 50,000 accidents . The same can’t be said for cyclists. While there are some methods of detection being implemented, the market industry has less variety and is much newer to the game compared to vehicle technology. On top of that, bicycle injuries can become fatal very quickly if one is unaware of their surroundings. Why should bicyclists suffer and not have the same capabilities?
 S. Zhu, “Blind spot warning technology contributes to a 23 percent reduction in lane change injury crashes,” Real-world benefits of car safety technology, 2019
 J. B. Cicchino, “Effects of blind spot monitoring systems on police-reported lane-change crashes,” Traffic injury prevention vol. 19,6, 2018
To address the problem, we are proposing to develop and implement a hazard detection system that can be used by bicyclists with a few upgrades on top of normal “blind spot” systems. The system will utilize an Infineon radar module to detect objects in the cyclist's blind spots. After detecting an object (presumably an approaching vehicle), a visual alert along with a buzzer will cue the cyclist of the potential hazard behind them. Depending on the distance the hazard is from the rider, one or both of the alerts will switch on. The buzzer will be used for more imminent threats while the light can notify the rider early on. Another light will be attached to the rear of the bike to notify the approaching object. With no permanent power source on a bike (like a car’s battery) we will need to tie in a battery system that can be easily operated. The majority of the system will be housed under the seat with other necessary components run where needed in user friendly positions. The main goal will be to not hinder the cyclists comfortability or maneuverability with the system in place while maintaining reliability.
## Project Components
### Processing Unit/Indicator System
The processing unit for our project will be composed of two primary sub processors: the data collection and processing unit and the indication system. Both units will be powered via battery.
#### Processing Unit
The processing unit will need to take in critical sensor data like ultrasound distance and camera input data to accurately pinpoint and determine what poses a threat to cyclists.
#### Indication System Controller (Wireless)
The indication system is composed of a microcontroller and wireless interface to drive the final cyclist interface. Then the wireless interface will be responsible for accepting wireless signals from the processing unit, and delivering it to the microcontroller. The microcontroller is then responsible for driving the LED and buzzer in the indication system.
### Sensor Suite
This subsystem will be the “eyes on the back of your head” to collect a variety of data on the cyclist’s surroundings and provide additional data
Sensors we intend to implement are:
-Infineon Radar Module
- Utilized for tracking surrounding objects and measuring distance to approaching vehicles
This sensor will be directly mounted to the processing unit, which will be responsible for processing and triggering indicators.
### Indication System
This subsystem will provide audio-visual cues for imminent hazards detected by the sensors.
Indicators we intend to implement are:
- Utilized for strong visual cueing of direction and proximity of potential hazards
- Piezo-electric Buzzer
- Utilized for strong auditory cueing urgent and imminent threats to the cyclist
- Variable pitch and rhythm can be used to describe level of urgency
## Criterion for Success
At the end of our project, we hope to have a functioning hazard detection system. For the system to be deemed functional, the sensor will need to be able to detect (or not detect) objects at various distances. When the sensor detects these objects, the processing unit will need to interpret and decide whether to alert the cyclist. The alert system will then notify the cyclist by the visual and audio cue with the LED indicator coming on when dangers are low and the buzzer coming in when more imminent threats are approaching. Along with that our camera will be able to record incidents and provide visual evidence of situations to ensure cyclists aren’t taken advantage of which happens often. On top of the actual functionality of the system, potential external issues will be addressed. These will include weather proofing, cyclist hinder-ability, ease of use, reliability, install time and method, etc.
|20||Wireless Remote Motor Controller
|Jason Zhang||Arne Fliflet||design_document1.pdf
Aaron Chen (aaronkc2) Kyungha Kim (kyungha2) Lee Boon Sheng (bsl3)
The need for efficient and convenient motor control is prevalent in various applications, such as robotics, automation, and remote-controlled vehicles. Existing solutions often lack simplicity and ease of use, making them less accessible to a broader range of users. Therefore, there is a demand for a wireless remote motor controller that is simple, user-friendly, and suitable for a variety of applications, including robotics and small wireless carts.
Our project aims to develop a Wireless Remote Motor Controller that provides an adjustable speed range of 0 to 100%. This controller will be designed to work with a simple wireless remote control using either infrared (IR) or radio frequency (RF) technology. The key features of the controller will include functions like start, stop, accelerate, and decelerate, making it intuitive and easy to learn for users of all skill levels. Additionally, it will be designed to send a single signal that can be used in conjunction with the immediately preceding motor control project, facilitating compatibility with existing systems.
Furthermore, as an alternative design, we will explore the possibility of controlling a pair of motors to support steering, opening up the potential for building highly efficient robotic platforms or small wireless carts. Besides, it should feature closed loop speed control, current limiting control and this machine will be operated under 24DC.
Subsystem 1: Wireless Remote Control
This subsystem will focus on designing and developing the wireless remote control interface. We will use either infrared (IR) or radio frequency (RF) technology for communication. Component selection will include IR/RF transmitters, receivers, and microcontrollers for signal processing. Specific part numbers will be determined during the component selection phase.
Subsystem 2: Motor Controller
The motor controller subsystem will include the hardware and software necessary to control the motor's speed, direction, and braking. It will consist of microcontrollers, motor driver ICs, power electronics, and control algorithms.
Subsystem 3: User Interface
This subsystem will involve the development of a user-friendly interface that displays motor status and provides feedback on the remote control. It may include an LCD screen, LED indicators, and user-friendly buttons for control. We will be developing a mobile phone app if we have extra time.
Criterion For Success
Our project's success will be evaluated based on the following criteria:
Wireless Control: The system must effectively control the motor wirelessly using the remote control.
Adjustable Speed Range: The motor controller should provide a smooth and adjustable speed range from 0 to 100%.
User-Friendly Interface: The remote control should be intuitive, and users should be able to start, stop, accelerate, and decelerate the motor easily.
|21||Door-Knocking Alarm for the Hearing Impaired
Ji Yoon Lee
|Tianxiang Zheng||Victoria Shao||design_document1.pdf
- Ji Yoon Lee (jiyoon3)
- Ajay Jayaraman (ajaykj2)
- Pax Kim (pkim63)
While there are plenty of alarms on the market that show some visual indicator (such as a light) when a doorbell is rung, there is a gap in the market for visual alarms for people with hearing impairments who do not have doorbells (for example, people living in dorms or even some apartment units, especially across college campuses).
We propose an alarm that senses when someone is knocking on a door. The sensor will specifically be aiming to detect vibrations through the door. The differentiation between knocking vibrations and vibrations that may cause vibrations through the door (for example, lots of people running past the door in a dorm setting) will be determined by testing a range of vibrations classifiable as knocking (as it is likely that knocking on a door will cause stronger vibrations compared to walking past a door). This will require testing to get the exact range. After the alarm is triggered, it will then send an alert to the user’s phone, and also emit a bright light. The design should be easily attachable to most doors and be visible from the inside of the room.
# Solution Components
- [Piezoelectric Sensor](https://www.amazon.com/DZS-Elec-Transducer-Microphone-Instrument/dp/B07TF5Q74Z/ref=sr_1_2?keywords=piezoelectric%2Bsensor&qid=1693962315&sr=8-2&th=1)
- ESP32-S3-WROOM (ESP32 Microcontroller)
- 9V Battery
## Sensor Subsystem
This subsystem will consist of the Piezoelectric sensor picking up on vibrations from the door that the device is mounted on. The detected frequency of vibration will be filtered and compared to tested threshold and after it has been sent for processing by the microcontroller. The frequency range that we estimate to detect for a door knock is between 1.5 and 2.5 KHz ([source](https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273187267_Everyday_Life_Sounds_Database_Telemonitoring_of_Elderly_or_Disabled?_tp=eyJjb250ZXh0Ijp7ImZpcnN0UGFnZSI6Il9kaXJlY3QiLCJwYWdlIjoiX2RpcmVjdCJ9fQ)).
## LED and Phone Notification Subsystem
When the sensor subsystem detects knocking, the ESP32 will send a notification to the user’s phone. The ESP32’S Wi-Fi capabilities will allow it to send a message to the user through WhatsApp. In addition, it’ll also light up the LED’s to attempt to notify the user.
## Control Subsystem
The control subsystem consists of the microcontroller (ESP32) and its connections to other components (PCB) as the main controller of how the subsystems interact. The microcontroller is in charge of taking the frequency/vibration data from the sensor subsystem and comparing it to a tested and validated threshold, deciding whether or not to send notifications using the above notification subsystem.
## Power Subsystem
We plan to use 9V batteries to power the control, sensor, and notification subsystems. The batteries should allow for the product to be powered for an entire day without swapping the batteries.
# Criterion For Success
- The piezoelectric sensor should only pick up vibrations in the effective range (when there is knocking at the door) and not extraneous motion in the door, like wind or the door opening
- The product must be easily attachable to most standard door knobs, and should be secure enough so that it is not loose
- Should be powered sufficiently and for a long duration with solely battery power
- The user should receive a phone notification and the external LED should flash when the alarm triggers
|22||MIDI Music Box
|Gregory Jun||Arne Fliflet||design_document1.pdf
|# **MIDI MUSIC BOX**
## **TEAM MEMBERS**
- *Jeremy Lee (firstname.lastname@example.org)*
- *Sean Liang (email@example.com)*
- *Tyler Shu (firstname.lastname@example.org)*
Making music using MIDI devices commonly found in modern day music devices can tend to be inaccessible to beginners as the equipment required to achieve such - specifically being able to listen to the music created on the device - can be difficult or expensive to obtain especially starting out. Since many MIDI Controllers and Devices don't include high quality playback devices, creating a cost-friendly attachment specifically geared towards playback would eliminate the need to purchase expensive software to process MIDI signals via a computer and the other devices needed to translate the MIDI signals into usable data.
## **SOLUTION OVERVIEW**
We want to implement a form of music box or playback device that would be able to interface with standard MIDI Ports on MIDI Devices *and also* interface with USB Ports and modern file formats to enable users to either play a recording provided by the user via a file or play signals live from a MIDI device.
*PCB/Microcontroller*: We will create a PCB containing an electronic circuit that takes in MIDI Input and processes the input into usable data, translating the data via an electronic circuit into physical sound mechanisms. At a basic level, the solution at this point should enable the user to switch out the input as desired in order to play back the input.
*Playback Device (Music Box)*: In order to enable the basic playback functionality, a form of music box will be implemented as the primary method of outputting audio. The basic mechanism can take inspiration from musical instruments, such as the music box, glockenspiel, celesta, electric pianos (such as the Fender Rhodes or Wurlitzer). Depending on the mechanism used, some amplification might be required.
The Microcontroller will take in the input, translating the input into a format readable by the playback device.
## **CRITERION FOR SUCCESS**
Our MIDI Music Box will be able to playback inputted MIDI signals, through either a live connection or a created file. For our demonstration, we will play several test files as well as include the use of a MIDI device (likely a MIDI Piano) to demonstrate the music box's functionality.
|24||Distributed Light System using Voice Recognition
|Jeff Chang||Olga Mironenko||design_document1.pdf
|# TEAM MEMBERS:
Anshul Goswami (email@example.com)
Walter Tang (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Anish Naik (email@example.com)
Having voice recognition can be very powerful to help with mundane tasks. For example, maybe you want to turn on a light in one part of the house without having to walk there or having to find the light switch in the dark.
Although Alexa can do something similar, people have privacy concerns about it. Our system offers local processing of voice data so that none of your voice recordings leave the area. This solution offers dedicated functionality which does not require a more complex home system if you don’t want to buy into a larger ecosystem of products. This solution also allows you to turn on/off specific lamps around the house through voice commands.
# SOLUTION OVERVIEW:
We want to create a base station that will be used as a go between between a system with a speech recognition system and lamps throughout the house. It will be made so that specific lights can be turned on throughout the house using voice commands. We will use Wifi to connect the base station to each of the lamp’s outlets.
# SOLUTION COMPONENTS:
Base Station Box consisting of Microphone, Raspberry Pi, and Microcontroller: This will allow us to connect to the various lamps in the house and process whatever voice commands are sent in over the Microcontrollers that are connected via Wifi
Lamps Plug in Box:
Connects the Outlet to the Lamp Plug, and will allow us to turn the specific lamps on or off using a MOSFET. They’ll also have a microphone that can connect to the Base Station with the microcontroller that’s connected to Wifi.
This will be used to pick up the voice of the speaker, and connect it to the systems so it can activate it.
We will either create our own Voice Recognition Module or find software that can do it. Otherwise we will just have it compare the voice to preset voices that we already put in place. This will then send a signal to the Microcontroller based on what the microphone heard
Connects the Raspberry Pi and the lamp plug in boxes to Wifi which allows them to communicate.
# CRITERION FOR SUCCESS:
Our project contains several boxes which connect the lamps to the outlet with the MOSFET, and then one main box which will house the raspberry pi. Our project will allow us to talk to the main voice station and be able to turn on other lamps throughout the house.
We can demonstrate this by successfully using the voice commands to turn the lights on and off through the main box.
|25||Home Appliance Energy Monitor
|Zicheng Ma||Olga Mironenko||design_document1.pdf
|Title: Home Appliance Energy Monitor
Team Members: Guneet Sachdeva (guneets2), Om Patel (opatel5), Ravi Thakkar (rthakk21)
Problem: As a technologically modern world, we have a lot of home devices that are consistently reliant on a lot of energy. However, we tend to overuse these devices, thus leading to dangerously high energy usage. This problem would become more apparent to users if they were able to visualize and track their energy consumption for home devices.
Solution: The solution for this problem would be to have a smart home energy monitor. This monitor would track energy consumption for the connected device over a period of time. There would be a microcontroller to process the values from the sensors and handle communication. An app would be made to display the results and send notifications to users if a certain device is consuming dangerously high amounts of power.
Components: Subsystem #1:
Microcontroller: Manage functionality and interactions of all other subsystems.
Power Relay: Takes care of turning devices on and off. Essentially used to control the power supply to the connected devices.
Sensors: The necessary sensors are a current sensor, a voltage sensor, and a temperature sensor. The current sensor measures the current flowing through the socket's outlet, which will be used for power consumption calculations. The voltage sensor measures the voltage level of the power supply, which will be used for power consumption calculations. The temperature sensor helps users monitor the temperature around the socket, which helps alert users if they need to adjust connected devices.
Subsystem #4: Energy Metering IC: This IC interacts with the current and voltage sensors to accurately measure the energy consumption of devices connected to the socket.
Bluetooth Connectivity Module: Helps facilitate transfer of sensor data to app via Bluetooth.
Criterion for Success:
Goals we have for our project are to be able to accurately measure sensor data, effectively transmit the sensor data to our app, and be able to control the power to the appliance.
Answers to Commonly Asked Questions:
The maximum voltage and current that we aim to measure are 250V and 20A. These are common maximum values in many regions and since we desire our product to work properly in many different locations, these would be the optimal maximum values to measure.
We plan to measure active power. The reasoning behind this is that active power reflects real energy consumption and that is more important for our product’s functionality.
Since this is a class project and is not expected to be industry standard, we aim for an accuracy of +- 5 to 10%. The standard we will be referencing is IEEE-Standard 1459-2010. This standard defines terms, concepts, and test methods for the measurement of electric power quantities.
Since we want our product to be relevant for residential applications, we aim to measure up to the 50th harmonic, which is 2.5 kHz.
|26||Simplifying Part Access
|Gregory Jun||Victoria Shao||design_document1.pdf
PCB designs, even at the prototype/hobbyist level, can use a significant number of small passive components. Typically, these components are packaged in a reel of paper/plastic “tape” with cutouts for each component and a removable film to hold the components inside the tape. The film can be peeled back to remove a few, but it is very easy to accidentally peel it too far and lose a lot of parts. Thus, the preferred way of working with tape-and-reel packaging is to cut the tape to the required length for the project, leaving the film intact on the rest of the reel.
This in itself poses a problem, though. If a project needs more than a few of the same part, manually counting to find the cut point becomes very tedious.
A way to approach this problem would be designing a modular system that the end user can request a specific number of parts from, and it feeds that many out. This can be accomplished by a tileable design where each tile is a box that holds a reel of the desired components on a spindle, which is turned by a motor, and the sections are cut by a motorized blade.
To confirm that the correct number of components are dispensed, sensors can be utilized to count the components.
- IR Sensor
- Motors for spindle
- Motor for blade
- Power delivery
- Front end (whether web or on screen controls).
- Stepper motor to move the tape https://www.sparkfun.com/products/10551.
- Secondary motor/solenoid on a linkage to cut the tape
## Component counting:
To count the individual components, we will make use of an IR photo interrupter (https://www.digikey.com/en/products/detail/sharp-socle-technology/GP1S093HCZ0F/720401 or similar), counting the sprocket holes in the reel. We need to see if this will work with clear plastic tape.
- The steppers need 12V, 400mA each and we will have 3 stepper motors for the system.
- Logic needs 3.3V power at 250mA or so.
- Additionally the motors (or solenoids) for the blade will also require a similar amount of power as the steppers.
- This estimate puts our power consumption at about 29W when moving all of the actuators simultaneously with 3 modules. We can support additional modules at this power target by ensuring that at most 3 modules can be actuated at a time.
- If using a web front end, provide the web page for use.
- Keep track of the components dispensed so far, processing the data from the IR sensor and continuing to tell the motors to feed more components if not yet finished.
- Once finished, tell it to cut off the components (might need to add security measures depending how blade is enclosed)
The primary portion of the box for holding the reel could be 3D printed, or in part cut out of acrylic for visibility.
## Control Box:
- ESP32 main controller - provides user interface and sends commands to the modules.
- Power/logic distribution - connectors for power and data to the reel modules.
- Display to select components and quantities - (https://www.digikey.com/en/products/detail/newhaven-display-intl/NHD-C12832A1Z-NSW-BBW-3V3/2059235 ), rotary encoder with button and numerical keypad to interact with the system and enter spacing values.
## Reel modules:
- ATMega328p reel controller - takes serial (I2C possibly) commands from the control box and moves the actuators to spool out the right quantity and also move the blade to cut the tape. Also measures the sprocket hole locations to ensure proper component alignment.
- Stepper control and motor control electronics are also present to power the actuators.
# Criteria for Success:
- The system accurately measures and provides the correct number of requested components. Cutting location should be accurate within +/- 1mm.
- The system is easy to use, allowing for a user to request a specific number of components and have it fulfilled within a minute (assuming a reasonable count, not say 100). The tape actuator should be able to attain a feed rate of at least 5mm/s.
- Said system is affordable, especially compared to industrial options at roughly $200.
- The system is modular, with which a newly assembled module can be added in 10 minutes.
|27||Smart Motion-Sensing Light for Occupancy Indicator
|Sanjana Pingali||Olga Mironenko||design_document1.pdf
|# Smart Motion-Sensing Light for Occupancy Indicator
- Siddarth Iyer (sri4)
- Ritvik Goradia (goradia3)
The Electrical and Computer Engineering Building (ECEB) offers a limited number of study and discussion rooms across its five floors, which prove invaluable for students aiming to collaborate on assignments, prepare for exams, or engage in general study sessions. There is currently no system in place to identify vacant rooms and as a result, each day students tirelessly go back and forth, scouring each floor in hopes of finding an empty study room. Worse still, there are also many students who travel all the way to the ECEB only to discover that all rooms are occupied forcing them to then seek alternatives in different buildings.
Our proposal presents a solution aimed at enabling students to easily and conveniently check room availability via a website. We plan to implement a system that will replace the existing motion sensor and automation infrastructure. Our proposed system not only retains the current capabilities of automatically controlling room lighting based on occupancy and adjusting brightness levels but will also seamlessly transmit real-time occupancy data to a central server using Wi-Fi, allowing students to conveniently view room availability information from their smartphones or laptops on a website anytime/anywhere.
# Solution Components
## Motion Sense
This sub-system is used to determine room occupancy using a motion sensor. This sensor will detect the presence of human beings and relay information to the ESP32 microcontroller.
- HC-SR501 PIR Sensor
The ESP 32 microcontroller receives occupancy status data from the PIR Sensor. It will then update the occupancy status on a server via wifi. It will also send a signal to the relay to turn the room’s light on. If no motion is detected for 5 minutes the microcontroller will send a signal to the relay to turn the light off and update the server/website.
## Lighting control
This module makes use of a relay and dimmer circuit to control the light based on the signal received from the ESP32.
- Thyristor circuit for dimming
- Relay circuit for toggling the light
## Power supply
This module deals with powering the microcontroller as well as the light and other related circuitry.
- AC/DC Buck Converter
# Criterion For Success
We would place a smart light system (including a light bulb) on the ceiling in 2 different rooms and the following should be observed on both the website and the dashboard:
- Initially, both rooms should be displayed as vacant on the website and the light bulbs should be off
- Upon entering the first room, the corresponding light bulb should instantly illuminate, and the website should update to indicate that the room is now occupied within 3 seconds
- We will exit this room and enter the other room. Now the second light bulb should also promptly switch on, and the website should reflect that the second room is occupied within 3 seconds
- In either room, the user should have the capability to adjust the brightness of the lightbulb using the dimmer feature
5 minutes after having left the first room, the bulb should turn off and the room should be indicated as vacant on the website
|28||Solar Remote Monitoring of Trough Water Level
|Zicheng Ma||Olga Mironenko||design_document1.pdf
|# Solar Remote Monitoring of Trough Water Level
- Alina Ampeh (alinama2)
- Ajay Venkatraman (ajaysv2)
- Letian Zhang (letianz3)
For the millions of Americans who rear livestock- whether it be recreational, amateur farming, or commercial production- filling water troughs several times per week all year round is one of the most important chores to be performed. For those with multiple large pastures, the process of checking each trough is a time-consuming task, and one which must be performed daily. Many will use Kabotas or tractors to make quick work of the task, but without such tools the process can be grueling.
Our solution is to provide a water-level monitoring system. Livestock owners could achieve peace of mind by monitoring every trough on their property simultaneously from their smart device. They could see which troughs can be skipped (full) and which need filling, whether it be urgent (empty), or could go another day before filling (medium). Troughs are frequently in remote locations within pastures, so our solution is solar-powered.
# Solution Components
## Subsystem 1: Water level detector
- Possible method 1: Ultrasonic sensor
An ultrasonic sensor could be outfitted to each trough and could detect the water level from the rim of the trough. We would aim for a water level resolution of 4”. We would aim for transmission at least once every hour.
- Possible method 2: Bouy
A bouy tethered to the trough edge could also work to indicate water level. A disadvantage of this approach is that it takes more space. An advantage of this method is that the tether length could easily be adjusted.
## Subsystem 2: Power
Our microcontroller would be powered by solar, achieved using a Si solar panel, an MPPT, a battery, and a voltage step-down.
## Subsystem 3: Base station
We want this solution to work for up to a hundred acres of pasture, translating to roughly a quarter-mile range from the furthest trough to a central base station.
# Criterion For Success
- Water level resolution detected within 4”.
- Solar panel powers microcontroller and sensor.
- Quarter-mile range from sensor to base station.
- User is able to monitor water level from phone.
- User is able to monitor at least 5 troughs.
|29||Renter-Friendly Fob-Activated Door Lock
|Nikhil Arora||Olga Mironenko||design_document1.pdf
|# Team Members:
How many times have you been carrying ten bags of groceries and arrived at a locked front door, or been pressed for time and had to fumble through a set of keys? These frustrating and time-consuming issues could be solved by a commercial “smart lock” system, however this solution is not renter-friendly because it requires replacement of a deadbolt.
Now imagine the same scenario at your rented apartment, except you arrive at a front door which automatically unlocks with a powered wireless transmitter, instead of fumbling with a traditional key.
Our solution is an induction-powered RFID system that uses a battery-powered fob to automatically open the door lock when held up to the lock, instead of a traditional key. When the correct fob transmitter frequency is detected, a motor would immediately spin to open the deadbolt. There would also be a button activating a ”locking” capacitor to re-engage the deadbolt. This would build off of Project 40 from Spring 2023 by incorporating a separate inductive charging coil from the transmitter (a device acting like a phone) on top of the identification coil that was previously done. In this solution the RFID reader alone wouldn’t unlock the door, because in order to power the servo motor remotely it needs more power then the RFID tag could receive and transfer. This will happen transiently, either simultaneously sending the data and the power at the same time or by charging the circuit first and then sending data.
# Solution Components
## Subsystem 1: Wireless Charging
The induced electromagnetic field from the RFID reader alone is not powerful enough to power a motor to open a deadbolt even with amplification from a battery pack. Our solution is to utilize a second coil in the fob that can inductively charge the receiver circuit to power the motor and LED. The wireless charging system will include a small backup battery which is only engaged in the case that the induced current in the door's circuit is prematurely cut off before the deadbolt is done reaching its ending position. We are using separate coils for the RFID and induction charging systems to better modularize our design. An IC that was documented by digikey that could work for this subsystem is this [Wireless Power Receiver](https://www.digikey.com/en/products/detail/stmicroelectronics/STWLC33JR/497-17649-1-ND/7702488) and [Digital Power Controller](https://www.digikey.com/en/products/detail/stmicroelectronics/STWBC-EPTR/497-17636-1-ND/7702478) that would work with this system. This is a possible [coil ](https://www.digikey.com/en/products/detail/wurth-electronics-inc/760308104113/732-5717-ND/4988096) that these ICs can communicate with.
## Subsystem 2: RFID (radio frequency ID)
Using a separate coil to that of the Wireless Charging subsystem, we will transfer data using the fob as an RFID transmitter to send a simple signal that must match the frequency of the door lock so that the fob and lock can identify each other. RFID technology is available on many compatible chips and will function with our design. This subsystem will exist both in our fob and will be on the door unit which connects to and powers the motor subsystem, making for a total of two PCB boards.
## Subsystem 3: Servo Motors
A [low voltage servo motor](https://www.towerpro.com.tw/product/mg996r/) will be in the door module that applies enough torque to push a standard deadbolt. The hyperlinked motor has a maximum current draw of 1.4 amps, and the maximum current that can be supplied by the coil we included in subsystem 1 is 7 amps. This guarantees that the power supplied by our wireless charging subsystem will be powerful enough to instantaneously push a deadbolt with the motor. Logic on the door's PCB board will detect if the motor reaches its stall current and disengage it to prevent it from burning out if, for example, the deadbolt’s path is obstructed.
## Subsystem 4: LED indicators
In both the fob and door, we will use an LED controlled by a microcontroller which determines when the battery is low. In addition, an LED in the in-door RFID subsystem will turn green to indicate successful user identification.
# Criterion For Success
It is important to mention several ideas in this RFA overlap with Project 40 that was previously done in Spring 2023. We will take the previous advice that we will not have any requirements stating it has to be mounted on the door or the original key needs to still function. Our goals and ideas will be very similar to the previous project but we seek to improve upon the design in order to better meet the goal that our project is renter friendly.
Our criterion for success are:
* Wireless charging of the device that turns the deadbolt within 2 seconds
* Successful RFID reading of data indicated by green flashing LED on door unit when fob frequency is successfully identified
* Motors engage and disengage standard deadbolt
* Deadbolt stops and returns to unlock position if path is obstructed (successful stall current detection)
* LEDs light up to indicate low battery voltage on the fob module and door module
|30||(Pitched) Infineon Robot
||Kai Chieh Liang
|David Null||Arne Fliflet||design_document1.pdf
|# Team Members:
- Kai-Chieh Liang (kcliang2)
- We-jui Chen (wjchen2)
- Saharsh Ballae (sballae2)
This RFA is based off the pitched robot project by Corey from Infineon
Infineon wishes to develop a robot with their new PSoC 6 microcontroller and different modules that can be used in trade show demos and University Alliance Program for teaching electronics and programming skills.
# Solution Overview:
We propose to design a shield that would be plugged directly onto a PSoC development board to control a wheeled robot that will be able to avoid obstacles, controllable through voice commands, and following a line
# Solution Components:
## Voice control:
We will be using Infineon MEMS microphone to capture voice, and Imagimob’s Edge AI to train a model for local identification of key command words
## Obstacle avoidance:
Using Infineon 60GHz Radar module, we would send the output to the MCU via SPI for the MCU to control the motors to avoid collision with obstacle and select a new route
## Line following:
We will use commercially available IR sensors that point down to follow a line
## Motor control:
We will be using Infineon’s transistors to build H bridges for motor drive and use magnetic speed sensors as control feedback
## Power supply:
We will use lithium rechargeable batteries and possibly with the aid of Infineon’s power IC.
As Infineon asked, we will use their PSoC 6 microcontroller. This will have built in Wifi and bluetooth connectivity.
## Motor and wheels:
We will likely use commercially available robot kit, or maybe ones from ECE 110.
# Criterion For Success:
- Voice command mode: Able to identify “forward”, “reverse”, “fast”, “slow”, “right”, “left”, “stop” voice commands with 85% accuracy and control the robot movement with these voice commands.
- The radar system on the robot should be able to detect obstacles ahead and provide a 90% success rate of avoidance. Should be able to override voice commands.
- With the motor control system, the robot will be able to move at speed from 0% to 100% with 20% increments
- Line following mode: Able to follow a line within 5 cm with a 85% success rate
- The battery are able to support the robot to run for 60 minutes with a full charge
|31||Muscle Highlighting Fitness Device
|Sainath Barbhai||Olga Mironenko||design_document1.pdf
|Team Members: Sreyas Dhulipala(sreyasd2), Anushka Pachaury(ap39), Sangyun Lee(slee677)
- Many people are new to fitness workouts and do not have a proper understanding of what muscles are being used when doing specific exercises. Even if they do understand, they may not perform the exercises correctly and therefore, not be activating the muscles that they would expect to.
- Our solution is to create a fitness device that specifically focuses on muscles in the arm including biceps(front of upper arms), triceps(back of upper arms) and forearms(lower arm). This device would be in the shape of a sleeve that the user would put on while working out their arms. This sleeve would contain multiple sensors throughout to detect various muscle activity. Additionally, each sensor would have an LED corresponding to it which would light up if the sensor recognizes muscle activity. The main goal would be for users to be able to recognize the muscles they are activating through the sleeve and to be able to make self adjustments if they realize they are not activating the correct muscles corresponding to the specific exercises they are performing.
- In order to isolate which muscle is being targeted, we plan on placing EMG sensors and LEDs near the locations of different muscles. Our goal is to create a sleeve where muscles that are being contracted and used more, have a brighter illumination compared to muscles that may not be used as much during an exercise. For example, if someone is performing bicep curls, they would be contracting and using the bicep the most, but another muscle such as the tricep could also be used to a lesser extent. In this case, the EMG sensor near the bicep would provide a larger amplitude value compared to the EMG sensor near the tricep. The amplitude returned by the sensor defines the strength and intensity of the muscle being contracted. Using this amplitude value, the LED corresponding to the bicep EMG sensor would light up brighter than the LED corresponding to the tricep EMG sensor. This method provides the user with information regarding all muscles on the arm which are activated during the exercise as well as the intensity of which they are being used.
- EMG sensor for muscle movement detection
- The video attached above demonstrates how an EMG sensor is able to record electrical activity that follows a muscle contraction which takes place when the user is performing arm specific workout such as bicep curls using dumbbells. Additionally, the sensor is able to clearly show significant differences in electrical activity when different weights are used.
- The sensor data would be sent to the microcontroller. Using the data provided by each sensor, the microcontroller would be programmed to rank their outputs based on amplitude value from greatest to least. In order to provide an accurate illumination for the LEDs for each sensor, we plan on taking the percentage difference from each pair ranking and using that to determine the LED intensity output. For example, in the exercise a close-grip chin up both the bicep and tricep muscles are activated equally. After ranking, let’s assume the bicep sensor ranked first and the tricep sensor was second, but their amplitudes were very close. In this case, the percentage difference would be very less and therefore their difference in LED illumination intensity would be less.
- We would use USB power to charge the device
Criterion for success:
- An arm sleeve that is easy to put on during workouts: Specifically, we can plan to create holes in the sleeve so that there is direct contact between the EMG sensors and the skin.
- The charge will be able to last for the entire duration of a workout
- Specific detection of which arm muscle is being worked out with high accuracy
- Illumination intensity scaled according to intensity of arm muscle activation
|David Null||Arne Fliflet||design_document1.pdf
|# Scrubbing CO2
- Student 1 (acard6)
- Student 2 (kinjald2)
- Student 3 (sh34)
Many areas of the world have little access or have a hard time reaching drinkable water but may be surrounded by plenty of salt water. Local water is a local problem and it needs a local solution that needs to be acted on since fresh water is a valuable resource. With an increase of CO2 levels in recent years more and more fresh water becomes tainted for places that have a hard time accessing fresh water.
What we for our project propose along with Professor Jont Allen is that we turn the nearby salt water into fresh water and at the same time extract the CO2 and convert it into graphite. This can be achieved by starting with a small test size of cold water which we will use to emulate salt water and pumping it in quantities into a long and wide aquifer, which we call aquipures. The aqupures then transport the "seawater" to a secondary tank that emulates desert environment. On the way to the final destination of the aquipure the sunshine from our light source which will emulate the sun evaporates the water, converting into water vapor. To trap the water vapor the aquipures are covered by a thin sheet of plastic, transparent to the sun's light. The water in the aquipures is continuously vaporized into and aerosol (small sub-millimeter sized droplets, to greatly accelerate the evaporation, by increasing the water's surface. Each of these steps only take small amounts of electricity. Once the humidity is raised to close to 100%, the moist air is sucked down channels by a low vacuum, where it comes in contact with a chilled surface. The cooling of the surface could be done by our ocean water as it comes in from the sea, which is typically much colder than the air. The slightly warmed sea water would then be used to flush the concentrated brine, resulting from the removal of H2O and CO2 from the sea water.
# Solution Components
## Heating and humidity (RC1610001)
- using a small semiconductor enclosure heater to be able able to control the temperature and humidity of the system where the system is to simulate a desert environment.
## Flow rate sensor (Plastic flow meter # 828)
- Measure the amount of water flowing into the system, and send out a warning signal if it exceeds a to-be-determined value
## Temperature sensor (BMP180)
- Measure the temperature at the different point of the system to ensure that the different parts of the system are working as intended and properly simulate the conditions we need.
## Water enclosure and housing
- Our project will have four different enclosures for our water to be in. First is a place to store the source "salt water" for our project, the second where the heating of the water and evaporation, the third id where the water is then cooled for precipitation, and the last is to store out outcome of the process.
# Criterion For Success
- To accurately detect and read out the current state of the model. As well as be able to desalinate over 50% of our input water into drinkable water
|33||Fire Detection and Suppression System for Electric Ranges
|Sanjana Pingali||Olga Mironenko||design_document1.pdf
|# Fire Detection and Suppression System for Electric Ranges
- Arjun Swamy (arswamy2)
- John Truong (jtruon9)
- Prathamesh Salunke (salunke4)
Electric ranges are responsible for 1,156 fires per million stoves in the US, which is 2.5x more than those caused by gas stoves. While smoke detection systems are able to alert authorities, they are often too late to prevent property damage and in some cases loss of life. The only way to stop this is to detect and suppress any unintended fires before it is allowed to spread.
Our solution to this problem is a device that mount to the underside of the hood of the range. The device will use onboard sensors to determine if there is a fire and the approximate location of that fire. Using the location, a nozzle will align with the fire to spray a fire suppressant to control the fire that has already started. At the same time the device will send a signal to a kill-switch that will turn off power to the range, which will stop any more fires from forming.
# Solution Components
## Fire Sensing Subsystem
This subsystem will house the sensors and the PCB+microcontroller(ESP32-S3). The sensors that the MCU will get data from are an electrochemical CO2 level sensor(MG-811), a UV sensor(AS7331_T OLGA16 LF T&RDP) and an IR sensor(TPIS 1T 1084). The MCU will process the data from these sensors using our algorithm to determine whether or not to take action and if to take action, where the fire is located on the range. Power for this subsystem will come from the wall, likely where the hood is already plugged into.
## Fire Suppressant Release Subsystem
This subsystem will be housed nearby the fire sensing subsystem and will be responsible for aiming the nozzle and releasing the stored fire suppressant. The aiming will be handled by controlling 2 servos(2183-2818-ND). The fire suppressant itself will be controlled using a solenoid valve(1528-1280-ND). This subsystem will also be powered from the wall.
## Kill-Switch Subsystem
The kill switch subsystem will mainly be a relay(RC840T-240) that can handle the 240vac circuit that electric ranges are usually hooked up to. Additionally due to the distance between the hood and where the range is usually plugged into, this relay will need to be controlled wirelessly. A second MCU(ESP32-S3) that is wirelessly connected to the main MCU, can be used to accomplish the goal of this subsystem.
# Criterion For Success
For our project to be successful, the overall system will need to:
1. System accurately determines whether or not there is a fire within it's sensing area
2. Aim and release the fire suppressant at the sensed fire
3. Cut power to the range upon detection
|34||Dynamic Seat Cushion
Anthony Cruz Macedo
|Jeff Chang||Victoria Shao||design_document1.pdf
|# RFA - Dynamic Seat Cushion
- Anthony Cruz Macedo (acruzm3)
- Angelica Fu (ahfu2)
- Eric Cheng (shcheng2)
Around 3 million people per year develop pressure sores, with over 500,000 cases requiring extended hospitalization. Wheelchair users face a higher risk of developing pressure sores and their best solution today is to manually adjust every 15-30 minutes.
However, not all wheelchair users are able to readjust their seat position when needed (e.g., those with limited mobility). Those with limited sensation are at an even higher risk of developing pressure sores since they are unable to feel when a readjustment is needed.
While cushions provide some relief to wheelchair users, the solution they offer is static, limited, and does not eliminate the risk of pressure sores. Currently, research into dynamic solutions is limited and no commercially available solution exists.
With a combination of resistive sensors, a programmable pneumatic pump, and thermoplastic polyurethane bladders, we will be able to create a dynamic seat cushion to relieve pressure for wheelchair users. The sensors will detect areas and time durations of high pressure(s), and then translate these signals into inflation controls for cushions in the surrounding areas.
We will be collaborating with Dr.Golecki’s group where we will handle the electronics portion (sensors, PCB + micorcontroller for air pump) and they will handle the mechanical portion (design of cushions). We are in charge of developing the high-resolution sensor array that determines where the user wants pressure to be relieved, optimizing for efficiency and compactness.
# Solution Components
## Subsystem 1: Sensor Array
This subsystem will provide high-resolution detection of prolonged pressure points and signal the pneumatic pump that inflation is needed around areas of high pressure. It is comprised of an array (of unfixed size) of force-sensing resistors (FSR).
The sensor array would track the detection time of high pressure in each FSR’s area. After meeting time and pressure thresholds, the sensor array would signal the microcontroller to pump air to areas surrounding the pressure point(s).
- Multiple Square Force-Sensitive Resistors - Alpha MF02A-N-221-A01
## Subsystem 2: Programmable Pneumatic Pump System
This module is in charge of taking data from our sensors and inflating the necessary cushions in response. The microcontroller will control pressure levels and inflation frequency of the cushions with the programmable pneumatic pump system using the data provided from the sensors.
- PCB with Microcontroller
- Pneumatic Pump(s) - generates air
- Valves - tubing
## Subsystem 3: User Input
This subsystem allows users to power on/off the dynamic seat cushion. In addition, it allows users to set a custom threshold time. Dr. Golecki mentioned that 30 minutes is a common threshold time where users would begin to feel pressure, but that every user will have different preferences. This system allows a customized setting for each user’s body. This is also where the rechargeable battery will be placed to power the device.
- Rechargeable 12V battery - power
- Enclosure - to hold battery and buttons
- 2 Buttons - one for power and the other for user input
- LEDs - signals the time threshold setting to users
# Criterion For Success
- Sensor array accurately detects pressure and sends signals when pressure thresholds are met
- Microcontroller accurately detects when time thresholds are met and inflates cushions surrounding high pressure areas
- Inflation of areas surrounding pressure points reduces or eliminates the pressure at those points
- The device is suitable for standard manual and electronic wheelchairs
|35||Bed Sensor Alarm
|Abhisheka Mathur Sekar||Arne Fliflet||design_document1.pdf
|Bed Sensor Alarm
colbyjk2 Colby King
sahme85 Syed Ahmed
ebaadss2 Ebaad Siddique
Most people wake up to an alarm in the morning. It is the easiest way to get the day started at the time you want. The problem is that it is too easy to see the alarm and go back to bed. With the snooze option or just general sleepiness, some people find themselves just going back to sleep regardless of the alarm system. There needs to be an alarm that can determine if someone is still in bed and not getting up on time.
To stop the user from turning the alarm off and staying in bed, there should be a way to tell if the user has gotten out of bed and stayed out of bed. The solution to that problem is weight sensors. Using weight sensors this product can detect when weight has been removed from the bed and check to make sure the weight has stayed off the bed. The system will have an alarm function that the user can set and the weight sensing will be the main way to turn off the alarm.
Alarm Function: This will be the main alarm for the user. It will consist of a speaker, an internal clock, and an input system so the user can set the current time and the time of the alarm they want.
Weight sensing function: This will consist of 4 (or 5) pads that can be installed directly under the bed frame legs. These pads will be able to record the weights they are sensing and report the overall weight to the central alarm.
Criterion for Success.
The pads collectively must be able to support at least 500lb
The alarm goes off at the set time designed by the user.
The alarm stops when a set weight is removed (50lb)
The pads should be able to be placed under a standard bed frame pole
The pads should be stable enough to not allow the bed to slide off
|36||[Pitched Project] Surgical Light to Aid Medical Microscopic Camera
|Jason Zhang||Arne Fliflet||design_document1.pdf
Manogna Rajanala - firstname.lastname@example.org
Jeremy Wu - email@example.com
Yogavarshini Velavan- firstname.lastname@example.org
After talking to Professor Gruev about the microscopic and surgical lamp project, we have come up with this RFA for Professor Gruev’s pitched project, surgical lamp.
Surgeons and medical professionals removing cancerous cells, mostly use their sense of vision to determine which cells are malignant and appropriately remove those. However, there is a limit to the human vision especially when dealing with an entity like the human body which is so complex and small like cancer cells. Considering how life threatening cancerous growths are and the fact that cancer is the second most leading cause of death in humans, detection and removal of cancerous cells is of utmost importance. Therefore, there is a critical and growing need to develop tools and methods to aid surgeons in their job of identifying and eliminating cancer cells.
Our solution to this is two-pronged: a microscopic camera and a surgical light. Our team will be working on the surgical light. This lamp will work in tandem with the microscopic camera to better aid cancer specialists to identify cancerous growths during both surgery and early examination. The surgical light solution is a programmable light source that will mainly be used in surgical settings.The surgical light will have different LEDs that will allow the user to modify the brightness of the light as they deem appropriate. The microcontroller will allow for the adjusting of the brightness and this could be with or without a wire. Additionally, an additional LED PCB will be used in order to allow for heat dissipation and terminal release.
The light sources will contain different sets of LEDs. The first set of LEDs would be visible spectrum white LEDs (~400-700nm). The second set of LEDs would emit around 700-800nm infrared light.
- Two layer heat dissipating PCB for LED that is different from a regular PCB because otherwise the PCB will melt
- Infrared light that will be around 700-800nm, minimum 1 milliwatt per cm square
- White LEDs that are around 400-700nm, minimum of 5 kilolux
- LED drivers
CRITERION FOR SUCCESS:
- Detecting cancerous cells when the surgical light along with the microscopic camera is shown
- User able to increase/decrease the brightness of the light and the color temperature from a pc
- UI for the user interaction with the LEDs
|37||Smart Stair Gate
|Zicheng Ma||Victoria Shao||design_document1.pdf
Alex Chin (email@example.com)
Brandon Lau (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Zeyad Irsheid (email@example.com)
Many families live in houses in which they have small children. In these cases, the stairs could be dangerous for young children such as babies who are still learning to walk and can’t fully support themselves yet. Parents take precautions to prevent their young children from going near the stairs however sometimes mistakes happen and they may forget to watch their children or put up something preventing them from accessing the stairs.
Our solution is to build a small smart gate that can be placed at the top of the stairs. The gate will have cameras attached and motion sensors that can determine if something approaches it. The initial state of the gate is that it is closed, and depending on the size of an object approaching, it may open. For example, if a baby approaches the gate then it will detect a small size and remain closed to prevent the child from falling down the stairs. However, if an adult approaches the gate then it will open so they can pass. The gate will have a latch that will signal the microcontroller when it is closed. The microcontroller will signal a device such as a phone so that parents can confirm the gate is closed when they are not around.
A smart child gate is necessary to provide peace of mind for the parents. Our world is growing and technology is advancing meaning people are busier than ever before. Sometimes, both parents in a family work and so they do not have time to be constantly watching over their young children. In addition, with so many things on your mind, it is not impossible for parents to forget whether or not they closed the gate before they left the house, went downstairs, etc. To remove this problem, the smart gate allows the parents to check on the state of the gate regardless of where they are and to close it from afar, giving them more control over their child’s safety.
Microcontroller: Microcontroller connected to the sensors as well as the camera. Receives a signal confirming whether the gate is open or closed. Allows manual access of the motors with a device such as a phone.
Motion Sensors: Motion sensors that can detect when a figure moves close to the gate.
Measurement Sensor: Measurement sensor that can detect the size of the object which will determine if it is a baby or an adult that is approaching the gate. These will be used in hand with the motion sensors to ultimately determine if the gate should open or remain closed.
Video Feed: Whenever a figure approaches the gate regardless of size, a notification will pop up on the phone to view the camera feed. Using the same app, you can manually command the gate to open or close. This is useful in cases where you may have a small pet that is allowed to roam the house but the gate mistakes it for a child and locks itself.
Mini-motors: Small motor present that can quickly close/open the gate depending on the conditions evaluated by the motion and video sensors.
A smart gate that is capable of opening/closing itself depending on conditions determined by motion and measurement sensors. The gate will be able to accurately determine the difference between a child and an adult approaching. The camera attached to the gate will provide a live feed to a device. Using the same device the user can confirm whether the gate is open or closed. In addition, they can manually command the gate to open or close with the push of a button.
|38||Smart Stove System
|Stasiu Chyczewski||Arne Fliflet||design_document1.pdf
Nikil Nambiar (nikiln2), Dinal Gunaratne (dinalg2), Aryan Gupta (aryang4)
In recent years, there has been a concerning rise in the number of house fires attributed to stoves being left unattended. Nearly 50% of house fires are caused by burners being left on and unattended. In addition, being able to control a stove away from the knobs allows for more control while cooking. As a result, there should be an easy solution where a user can remotely control and turn off any burner that is on.
Our solution involves having heat sensors on each of the stoves to determine which burners are on and relay this information to the user via an app. The user will be able to see which stoves are on, and control each stove remotely. To whatever level the user sets the stove, there will be a robotic clasp that will appropriately move the knob of the stove to the desired level. The robotic clasp’s movement will be controlled by a chassis on rails which will automatically go to the desired knob and then turn it off. We are planning on having this movement pre-configured so that it can be easily replicated. Additionally, all communication between the app and heat sensors will be done over a network connection.
This solution will also have automated features. We plan to add a thermometer probe the user can manually put in pots with soups or other liquids to add boil over protection. This probe will monitor the temperature and automatically turn down the temperature of the stove once there is a risk of a boil over (temperature rising significantly above boiling point).
Our app will contain a visual interface which allows users to see which exact burner is on, and change the burner intensity to whatever is desired, including off. Additionally, we will add push notifications to notify the user if a burner is on or if boil over was detected and handled.
If time permits, an additional feature we would like to implement is a separate smoke detecting component to allow for fire detection. This component would detect if a fire is forming and automatically turn off the burner to prevent or reduce the flame. It would also notify users via the app.
Microprocessor: Processor to control the robotic claspers’ movements, send and receive signals from app
Rail System: Simple motor powered rail system to guide the clasper along the stove top
Servo Motors: Used to move the robotic clasper along the rails
Chassis: Create a stable mechanism to hold the clasper mechanism
Clasper with Actuator: Use an actuator to press the clasper on the stove switch
Wifi adapter: Connects device to wifi to allow communication with app
App: phone app with front end to display which stove is on and allow users to close stove from app
Heat Sensors: Sensors to check the heat of each stove to tell if stove is off
Thermometer Probe: Sensor to check the temperature of liquid in pot
**CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS:**
Our main goal is making sure that a user is able to remotely turn off a stove. The system should be able display information regarding which stove is one and give the user the option to turn off the stove. All this communication between the system and user will be done through an app.
Our second goal is for boil over protection which should automatically detect when a liquid in a pot is being boiled for too long and either notify the user that their dish is about to boil over or remotely turn down the temperature of that specific burner to prevent the spill over before it occurs.
Stretch Goal: If time permits we would also like to add some sort of smoke detector sensor that would be able to detect if there's a fire on the pan or not. We would probably have to create our own module for this, and look into this further.
|39||ECEB Submetering System [Pitched Project]
|Tianxiang Zheng||Olga Mironenko||design_document1.pdf
- Sophia Marhoul (marhoul2)
- Houji Zhou (houjiz2)
- Vincent Nguyen (vbn3)
Our RFA is based on Prof. Schuh’s proposal for a 3-phase, 208V, 60Hz power meters that can be placed inside individual rooms for detailed power monitoring.
The ECEB is a Platinum LEED certified building, powered by rooftop solar panels. In order to continually improve energy efficiency, it is necessary to further optimize power consumption. This can be done if building management has detailed power data, tracked over significant periods of time, to analyze trends in usage and opportunities to reduce idle consumption.
Our solution is to create power meters that can accurately measure power, voltage, and current of individual rooms within ECEB and upload this data to a server for future analysis and monitoring.
# Solution Component
## 3-Phase Metering
- We will use a hall effect sensor as a current transformer/ current sensor, such that we can calculate the continuous current. The Tamura 400A Hall Effect Open Loop Bidirectional Module (Digikey MT7178-ND) is one example of a suitable sensor.
- The system voltage can either be calculated with a contact method, such as a high-resistance voltage divider, or by a non-contact sensor, depending on the project sponsor’s preference. Noncontact methods are significantly more expensive, but will make the device easier to install and move.
- Instantaneous power will be calculated by multiplying instantaneous voltage and current from each phase in the microcontroller.
## Power Supply
We will use a battery that can supply our meter for a minimum of 1 week without needing to be recharged.
## ESP32 Microcontroller
- The ESP32 will be responsible for onboard computing, and streaming our data to a web server with their respective time stamp via WiFi, and transferring data into an SD card that will store at least 96 hours of data.
- An SD card will store up to 96 hours of data onboard the PCB. We expect the SD card to be roughly 100 MB assuming that 4 data points (time, power, voltage, and current) must be taken every 0.1 seconds and stored for 96 hours.
## Web Server
- The web server stores the data uploaded by the ESP32 and will process any required computing for analysis.
- users will be able access a website that displays the data from the webserver and be able to download csv data.
# Criterion For Success
- The 3-phase meter can measure power, voltage, and current 10 times per second.
- For our demonstration, we will show that we can accurately measure the power, voltage, and current of the output of the power bench.
- The device will store the data into a SD card on board (up to 96 hours).
- The ESP32 will then upload the data to a web server, where it communicates with the web server 4 times a hour through WiFi.
- Users will be able to access a website and view the data and be able to download it into csv.
The web server will interface with the meter functionally. And it can send requests to the board that pulls the data within a certain time to the web server (up to 96 hours).
|40||Vertical Climbing Drone
|Jeff Chang||Arne Fliflet||design_document1.pdf
|#Vertical Climbing Drone
Jacob Corsaw (jcorsaw2)
Jeffrey Chang (jdchang3)
Josh Crosby (jcrosby3)
For about the past decade, drones have become more available and more widely used in many commercial, industrial, and domestic applications. These drones have allowed us to see and examine situations that a human could not with unprecedented freedom. Specifically, we can now use drones to scope out crawlspaces, vents, pipes, and other tight environments where it would require much more work to put a human inspector. That being said, these drones are nearly all of a similar build: wheels or tracks to crawl along the floor. However, in vents and pipes, we put bends in them to change elevation. A tracked or wheeled drone that rides along the floor will be unable to move any further, as it would get stuck on the upward bend or be lost if it went downward through a vertical shaft.
Our solution aims to change this. We propose a similar foundation, as in a wheeled or tracked drone, to explore tight spaces, but we would like to add a third method of traversal to allow our drone to climb vertically, provided new and convenient access to a full length of ventilation, plumbing, etc. A top mounted track or wheel structure that can extend out to fill the length from floor to ceiling of a small space would allow the drone to drive itself up or down a vertical shaft. That is, it can climb walls so long as there are two surfaces on the top and bottom to wedge itself between. The additional freedom that comes from a new plane of traversal would have many applications.
As mentioned before, this would be a prime traversal tool to scout ventilation ducts and pipes for blockages, damages, and other conditions that would otherwise be problematic to the operation of these systems. Furthermore, we can easily fabricate a holder to attach wire or cable that would allow our drone to be the perfect candidate to run cabling and wires in the space between floors, the gap in the walls, or the tight areas in the ceiling. The utility this provides, and convenience, should be apparent to see. The fields that would use this drone currently have tools that attempt to accomplish what our idea is ideal for to a limited degree. We have special snaking tools to carry wires and cables, but they have limited range and cannot take a vertical bend very well. There are already drones as mentioned earlier to traverse small spaces, but they are forced to ride on the ground and also fail to traverse any vertical dimension. Our proposal would be the ideal tool for any job that tight spaces are involved.
The subsystems of our drone would be broken down as follows:
Mechanical is somewhat short. We need to make sure our motors are chosen wisely so we can have a fantastic power to weight ratio. We'll need these to turn our wheels/tracks. The other mechanical issue is the ability to raise and lower the top wheel/track so it can wedge itself into the diameter of the space. We'll probably use a scissor lift style expansion mechanism to achieve this.
The drone will have some sort of camera that we'll need to stream back to the user so that they can see what the drone is seeing and maneuver accordingly.
-Remote Control System
We're planning on using a remote control as the method that we'll use to drive our drone. Wires will weight it down the farther it goes and can get wrapped around objects. We'll need to get a remote-control system going on our drone for mobility's sake.
This should be pretty straightforward; we just need a clamp of some kind to hold various kinds of wire in place while the drone traverses.
#Criterion for success
-The drone should display the proper mobility expected of standard drone that drives along the ground. We'll have the drone rotate in place to turn as well as be able to drive forward and backward
-The top track should be able to expand to fit the diameter of the space to apply additional traction.
-The drone should be remote-controlled and stream video back to the user.
-The drone should be able to drag and feed a wire behind it while traversing a space.
-The drone should have the ability to climb in tight vertical spaces.