|1||Low Cost Solution of Thermal Cycler for LifeFoundry, Inc.
|Names and NetIDs
Shaoyu Meng smeng9
Yuanjiu Hu yhu49
Pei Liu peiliu3
LifeFoundry, Inc. is a startup based in the research park focusing on the automatic control of synthetic biology processes. Their main goal is to build low-cost and high-throughput devices that will facilitate the research in this field.
Thermal cycler is a device that will raise and lower the temperature of a sample plate repeatedly during a synthetic biology process, namely 30+ cycles will take several hours to complete. However, existing products are expensive and often require manual input. Thus researchers need to be physically in the lab to conduct experiments. In addition, current products mostly use fans to cool the block, which is not the most effective solution for repetitive cooling operations.
We are planning to design a prototype of such machine that will cost less than $400. It will also have remote control and a water cooling system. The addition of a water cooling system gives researcher more flexibility when a large number of heating/cooling operations are needed. Also theoretically, water cools the block faster than air, thus saving time. A modular design of this project would consists five parts.
Power System: Use AC to DC power converter to power PCB board(5V) and heating pad(12V). We choose AC over battery because we want to have a steady voltage, as well as more precise control in heating rate.
Heating Pad: Heating pad goes under the sample plate. It is designed to be built with a matrix of resistors that we are able to control the temperature rising process of thermocycler.
Water Cooling System: Water cooling system comes together with the heating pad. They are designed to be on the same aluminum slab for better heat conduction. Consists of a water tank and electronically controlled pump and water pipes under the heating pad. Because water is separated from the system, any possible leakage will not contaminate the sample and damage the PCB board.
Sensor: Multiple temperature sensors(thermistors) will be installed above the sample plate and below the sample plate for uniformity and redundancy.
Microcontroller: Microcontroller will handle the PID algorithm of heating/cooling rate and the communication between computer and PCB board for automation. The input signals include sensor data from multiple spots and signals from the computer to change the program parameters. The output should be the connected to heating pad and water valve.
Currently, thermal cyclers We are the first to offer water cooling feature in such machines. We think many of the existing machines on the market today are ridiculously overpriced, and we intend to disrupt this niche market by offering our low-cost solution.
An example of current overpriced product
Peltier effects / solid state refrigerator
|2||App controlled solar powered street lamp
Kevin Dahm - Kcdahm2
Brendan Weibel - bweibel2
Justin Lindstrom - Jlinds27
Project title: App controlled solar powered street lamp
We want to create a solar powered street lamp that is completely off the grid so the customer could place it wherever they’d like. This lamp could be monitored and controlled from the customer’s cellphone. While solar powered street lamps do exist, they do not allow remote monitoring or control. Our app will allow the customer to check on the lamp’s power production as well as the batteries energy level. The light will be at least 3000 lumens and the user will have the option to change the color of the light through the mobile app.
|3||Portable PCR Machine
|-Hershel Dave-Rege davereg2
-Nathan Franczyk frnczyk2
-Yihao Yang yyang150
Conventional methods for PCR (polymerase chain reaction) are time-consuming, and costly with no room for mobility in the design of current machines.
Develop a self-contained, portable PCR machine.
Scope of Project:
Developing an entire PCR system with fully automatic functionality is out of scope for a semester project. Therefore, we propose to limit the scope to developing a portable machine (max 25 pounds) that autonomously completes the thermal cycling of 2 samples of DNA, with real-time thermal sensor measurements.
Our idea is to develop an all-in-one portable system that contains all the same elements as a traditional PCR machine, but on a miniaturized scale. The different blocks within the system include:
-Infrared LEDs to heat up the samples and miniature fans to cool down the samples
-Thermocouples connected to a high resolution analog-to-digital converter to get accurate real-time temperature measurements
-Microcontroller interface to automate the thermal cycling
-USB interface to computer for display of real-time measurements
-Powered by rechargeable battery
-An enclosure to properly house the samples and all associated components (battery, PCBs)
Test of Functionality:
The system’s success can be verified by affirming that the system can operate for 30 thermal cycles continuously without losing power, and consistently hits the temperature benchmarks of 75 to 95 degrees Celsius for each cycle. The system should be able to achieve heating rates of 6 degrees/second and cooling rates of 3 degrees/second, and should not weigh over 25 pounds.
|4||Self-Sustainable Solar LED Streetlight
Surya Teja Tadigadapa
|Our objective for this project is to design and develop a completely self-sustainable, portable and user-friendly street light. We will use solar panels to harvest solar energy, store this energy in a battery and then use it to run the streetlight. Our goal is to have the streetlight provide 3000 lumens for at least 7 days from dusk to dawn (~12 hours a day).
We will be designing and developing the hardware subsystems required to run this lamp. This will include choosing appropriate components required by the streetlamp, including the battery, solar panel, LED lighting source; and creating at least the following circuits to use it efficiently:
Steady State Circuit
Safety Circuit (Prevent the battery from discharging completely or overcharging)
Battery Monitoring Circuit (To check how much energy is left in the battery and provide this information to the user via an app)
An aluminum frame or box will be used to protect the battery from overheating and to keep the solar panel, lamp and battery together. PVC pipes or an alternate material can be used as a framework to hold the wiring of the above circuits together. We will also be designing and developing a circuit to automatically turn the lamp on/off during dawn/dusk using either photocells or an astronomical timer.
We will also have a mobile/web application that will allow the user to gauge how much energy is left in the battery. A microcontroller(arduino with a wifi shield / particle photon/ raspberry pi) will be utilized in order to communicate the battery level information to the mobile/web app.
Our streetlight is unique as it is self-sufficient and also allows the user to remotely gain critical information about the streetlight. This is an appropriate idea for a senior design project as it involves the design, engineering and development of hardware components and subsystems for a well-defined problem, namely, a solar streetlamp.
|5||Solar RC Boat 49
Nisa Chuchawat chuchaw2
Robert Whalen rwhale3
Zhendong Yang zyang60
Our project idea is to innovate the RC boat. Typically RC boats have terrible battery life and long charge times (8 min of use for 1.5 hours of charge). In order to circumvent this we propose to add photovoltaic solar cells to the boat. These PV cells will provide power to the boat motors while the user is playing with the boat. In case of cloud coverage, the PV cells will be a part of a comparison circuit so when the power produced falls below a threshold value, the PV cells are disconnected from the motors and the backup battery will be connected. Once the cloud cover goes away and solar power returns, the battery will then be disconnected with make before break logic to ensure constant power distribution. Therefore, we will be able to extend the playtime of the boat because we are only using the battery when the solar energy is unavailable. We will also have our input solar power connected to a regulator to get smooth power and boost converter to increase the voltage to the necessary level to power the motors. We then will expand on our RC boat solution by addressing the signal range problem. When playing with an RC boat, the boat is often driven out of range of the controller. This is annoying because it is hard to get the boat back without going into the water after it. Therefore we will implement an RF signal detector. We will accept the signal through an antenna and then have it processed and filtered and sent to a microcontroller chip which will interface to a zigbee. The zigbee will then communicate to the RC controller warning the user before the boat goes out of range (for example, with an LED) and that the boat should be turned around. There will be a frequency threshold, and we will give the user enough time to respond to the signal and turn the boat around. These two enhancements will allow longer use of the boat since the battery life will be extended and the range that the boat can go is monitored so it always stays within range.
|6||CONTACT PROBE ALIGNER FOR SEMICONDUCTOR MEASUREMENTS
Stanford Zhou (fzhou36)
Zehua Chen (zchen120)
Zihao Xie (zxie16)
Project title: CONTACT PROBE ALIGNER FOR SEMICONDUCTOR MEASUREMENTS
In ECE 444 class, the measurement of semiconductor data using the probe station could cause damage to the device and the probes themselves, disabling others from getting measurements. This is primarily because some people isn’t that precise about the movements of the probes using their own hands， and can’t determine if the probe is already in contact with the wafer or not.
We will implement a supplementary device to improve the functionality of the probe station. It helps control the knobs more accurately and avoids any destruction of the wafer. Our device will allow the user to control the probe knobs electronically instead of using hands. And our sensors can detect the distance between the probes and the wafer. It also can sense whether the probe should make contact or not based on the topology of the wafer underneath.
Scope of Project:
The device should be manageable to control one of the probe correctly. There are total of four probes but the others are simply duplications.
The top-level design consists of three major blocks.
1. Circuit design and control system
Long range (above 1cm) step motor forward operation circuit (state one)
Short range (below 1cm) step motor forward operation circuit (state two)
step motor backward operation circuit (state three)
step motor hold operation circuit (state four)
control system that switches the four states
power supply (low voltage)
2. User interface
USB port interfaces computer for manually control
USB port interfaces computer for imagining and distance measurements from color sensor and IR distance sensor
3. Sensing units
Color sensor: bright color indicates metal contact, dark indicates non-metal.
IR distance sensor
Description of Functionality:
The probe will move faster if the distance between the probe and wafer is more than 1cm. It will move slower under 1cm. It does not allow further downward movements closer to the wafer only if it is above the correct region determined by color sensor. Once the probe touches the wafer, the voltage measurements will be available. The control system will put the motor in hold state. To minimize mechanical challenges , we will only use a toothed wheel attached to the motor and knob.
|7||Dual Glove Air Guitar
|Glove-based air guitar that measures distance, pressure, and flex of finger movement to both simulate left-hand fret action and right hand strumming action. Basic features include on-off strumming detection, limited chord detection, audio output (preferably Bluetooth), data transfer from sensors through microcontroller of choice, calibration UI, mechanical resistance on fingers, and power for device. Advanced features, if time permits, are haptic vibrational feedback, accelerometer for sliding and hammer-on, multiple left-hand positions, and recording of snippets. The guitar will be stylized, meant for recreation and as a novelty.
This project has a significant hardware component (sensors, potential vibrational feedback, gyroscope, accelerometer, Bluetooth), mechanical touch (glove design), and software design (calibiration UI, sound samples, audio interpretation). It has a niche use for many music enthusiasts and guitarists. Not only is our idea helpful for basic practicing and learning, it will be fun to use and can be expanded for more professional and practical application.
There are similar products on the market that rely more on software or VR to simulate guitar playing, but our project will not be dependent on software for use (apart from calibration). The product will be able to function with just Bluetooth headphones. Another similar project was a haptic violin, but this also simulates bowing, and does not have that feature. Our guitar will hopefully be able to do the vast majority of things guitarists do (strum, pluck, slide). Even if not fully implemented, the bones of the project will allow for easy expansion without having to drastically change the engineering design.
|8||Bicycle Street Notification System
|The current street notification system for bicyclists includes using their hands and arms to notify other road users of their intentions to turn (left or right) or to stop. These signals are not used by all bikers, and many non-bikers do not know these signals exist or how to interpret them. This can create confusion on the road and lead to accidents that could easily be prevented if bikes had a notification system like cars do to indicate turning, braking, and hazards in case of emergency.
We want to create a bicycle light system that includes left and right turn signals, a brake light, and hazard light system. The left and right lights will use LEDs in arrow shaped housing, and will be placed on both the front and the back of the bike. They will be controlled through switches on their respective handlebars with the additional feature that they will turn off once an optic sensors detects that the turn has been completed. The brake light will be located on the back of the bike and will be controlled using a pressure sensor at the left and right brakes on the handles. The hazard light system will have the four turn signals and the brake light flash on and off, and will be turned on and off using both the left and right turn signal switches. To power the systems, we proposed charging a battery using solar power. An extra feature of our bike system would be to implement a speedometer using magnets and the PCB board to display the speed on a small display on the handlebars.
While there are bike light systems already in existence, ours can be considered unique because of the inclusion of the flashing hazard lights, the automatic turn-off once the bike has completed its turn, as well as using solar to power the system.
|9||Portable RF Light Socket Control
|Michael Kopera - mkopera2
Andrew Strauss - aistrau2
Grant Bonnstetter - bonnste2
Light switches at times can be located in highly inconvenient places. A portable light switch gives users freedom and customization for light switch placement.
The solution contains two main components. The first is the portable light switch and the second is an attachment that goes between the light bulb and the light socket. The light switch would be battery powered and have an RF transceiver. The intermediate device between the light bulb and socket includes a RF receiver module as well as Solid State Relay (SSR) that would act as a switch between the socket and bulb. The intermediate device would also be powered by the light socket through a 120 VAC to 5 VDC converter. The 5 VDC would go to powering the receiver, logic circuitry, and the SSR. The 120VAC circuity would have a fuse to protect all the other components in the intermediate device.
If multiple lights need to be controlled, the light switch could have an additional component that would allow the user to select a frequency range. Different frequencies would control a single light or a set of lights. The light socket intermediate device would have the capability to tune to different frequency channels.
Transmission will based in the 433 MHz band which is allocated for short range communication in the home automation area devices. One opportunity we see to make our solution distinct from existing solutions is to extend the range of communication by repeating the transmitted signal across the sockets distributed across a home.
Current designs for light control systems involve the use of wifi, bluetooth, and smartphones. Having lighting linked to a smartphone restricts the user and their guests from easily doing a simple task like turning on the lights. Solutions requiring smartphones restrict the user in a way because the user has to download particular apps as well as their guests if they want to access the lights. Whereas our solution is a portable light switch that can be placed anywhere and used by anyone.
|10||Automatic Dog Door
- Nicholas Cain (nmcain2)
- Kamil Zabawa (kzabawa2)
- Ryan Prodoehl
The goal of our project is to develop an automatic dog door - the door will only open when a dog is headed towards the door from either side through the use of RFID and an IR sensor. An IR sensor will be used to determine if a dog is walking towards the door or not. Further, we will include user customization features via an internet connected application. These features can set what times the door is unlocked for the dog to use, or keep the door locked when it is raining/snowing outside. We will be using an already existing dog door as a foundation and will build upon it by creating a mechanical locking mechanism (see specifications).
- Main logic board that controls the locks position with an electric motor or actuator, based on whether the RFID chip on the dog’s collar is within a certain range of the sensor.
- Weather sensors outdoors that prohibit the logic circuit from allowing
the door to unlock based on current conditions.
-Deadbolt style lock, with a the motors in a resting state left leaves the door locked.
- Differentiating when the RFID tag on the dog is entering the door, rather than just around it.
-- Use of additional IR sensors on either side of the door to use in conjunction with RFID.
- Ensuring the door has settled into a closed position before locking it.
-- Simple magnets in door flap and frame to snap into place.
- Guaranteeing unwanted intruders are unable to gain access through the door.
--Shouldn’t be an issue if unique RFID tag is used in addition to the locks being defaulted to a ‘LOCKED’ state.
|11||Stand Alone Solar Powered LED Streetlight
|Xiaolou Huang -- xhuang61
Patrick Wang -- pjwang2
Collin Hasken -- chasken2
Problem: In some area in the US/around the world it is difficult to have access to the power grid. Instead of having a power line pulled across the entire road to power up a few street lights, we could place stand alone streetlights that will operate itself independently.
Idea: Our goal is to design a stand alone streetlight that will power itself through sunlight (Solar Power) and store the energy for later use (at night). Lithium-ion batteries will power LED lights that can produce 3000+ lumen. Battery status and customization will be available through a mobile app on a bluetooth connected smartphone.
Things we have considered:
Power & Battery Capacity:
To produce a 3000+ lumen light source, the power dissipated will be roughly 35-40W. Assuming there is no sunlight for two days straight, we will need roughly operate 20 hours (2 nights of 10 hours), a total of roughly 60000mAh. The battery capacity we choose will therefore be of this value. This capacity is quite large, and therefore we plan to use Lithium-ion battery. Possibly 3 cells in series and multiple in parallel.
We have looked up a few commercial solar panels and most of them provide a power of 100W, if voltage of battery is at ~12V, we will have a maximum charging current of roughly 8A. The average amount of daylight per day is 4 hours (max power) and therefore we can generate roughly 30000mAh on average, (when the battery is depleted).
Charging Circuit (Charging IC, etc.) - for charging the battery
Fuel Gauge - For measuring the battery voltage, capacity, etc.
Boost/buck converter - to produce a steady DC voltage (12V) for the LED (load)
Microprocessor - To communicate with Fuel Gauge and the bluetooth IC.
Protection circuit - Preventing charging/discharging current of batteries to reach maximum values
An app will be created for smartphones that will communicate with the bluetooth chip. The app will send a request for the current battery status when opened, every 5 minutes while the app is open, and when a refresh button is pressed. The app can switch the lamp from auto detecting when to turn off, to always off, to a set schedule to be on/off.
|12||Cell Phone Transmission Detector
|PROJECT TEAM MEMBERS:
Anthony Schroeder - ajschro2
Shandilya Pachgade - pachgad2
Anish Bhattacharya - abhttch4
This project was proposed in class on September 5 by Benjamin Eng. He would be our main point of contact and sponsor for this project.
Radio frequency observatories such as the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico rely on receiving low-power RF signals to study astronomy and the upper atmosphere. Stray RF signals from cell phones can disrupt these observations. We would like to develop a detector that will alert a user if a cell phone nearby (max 1 meter distance away from detector) is emitting a RF signal contained in those specific bands used by cell phones in Puerto Rico.
PROPOSED PROJECT / SOLUTION:
We would use an antenna to receive possible signals. We would then need to design an accompanying transmission line in order to move the signals from the antenna to the rest of the system. We would then use a "pre-selector" bandpass filter in order to clean the incoming signals. We would then use an oscillator and a mixer to transform the signals of interest (> 1 GHz) down to baseband for processing. An Analog to Digital Converter would then feed into a DSP chip which will have a detection algorithm (perhaps using ML) to identify signal power in the bands of interest. Depending on the power in these bands, we would alert the user via an LED or piezo buzzer.
GENERAL, TOP-LEVEL SUMMARY OF COMPONENTS:
2. Designed transmission line
3. Bandpass filter
7. DSP Chip
9. Battery (and voltage regulator)
Radio frequency interference from cell phones disrupts measurements at the radio observatory in Arecibo, Puerto Rico. Many visitors do not comply when asked to turn their phones off or put them in airplane mode.
We are planning to design a handheld device that will be able to detect radio frequency interference from cell phones from approximately one meter away. This will allow someone to determine if a phone has been turned off or is in airplane mode.
The device will feature an RF front end consisting of antennas, filters, and matching networks. Multiple receiver chains may be used for different bands if necessary. They will feed into a detection circuit that will determine if the power within a given band is above a certain threshold. This information will be sent to a microcontroller that will provide visual/audible user feedback.
|14||Child Development Sensor
||Eu Hong Woo
Yang An Tang
|This is a project in collaboration with a Mechanical Engineering team from ME 470 :
Jeffrey Nie (jnie8)
Junwu Zhang (jzhng120)
Perry Robert Zumbrook (zumbrok2)
Jessica Nicole Brooks (jnbrook2
Mehu Pandey (mpandey3)
This project will be advised and funded by:
Prof. Harley Johnson (htj)
Prof. Nancy L McElwain (mcelwn)
The objective of this project is to build a wearable device that monitors an infant's vital signs (heart rate, body temp, movements etc) and voice audio recordings. This device will be used by researchers in Human Development & Family Studies, Psychology, Educational Psychology, Speech &Hearing Science, and Electrical Engineering to safely and unobtrusively monitor physiological responses in young children. This device differs from what's on the market such that it collects ECG waveforms rather than BPM which are common in other device. This device actually consists of two main parts, the sensor node and hub. The data collected will be easily accessible through a phone or tablet device with an internet connection.
Since this device is to be worn by an infant, there are a few requirements to be met, namely:
- Non intrusive, meaning it won't be an obstruction to an infants movements.
- Safe. Should not have any harm from electric shortages or should not be easily ingested by an infant.
- Consumes low power so that any heat produced won't irritate an infant.
With these requirements in mind, our team will mainly focus on building the sensing part of the project that requires a few components:
- A main processing hub which receives streamed data wirelessly from the sensor node worn by a child and pushes it to a cloud storage server for anywhere, anytime retrieval of the data.
- A low-powered sensing unit worn by a child which can measure mainly ECG heart rate and record audio. Data will then be sent via Bluetooth/Zigbee or some form of low-energy protocol to the main hub. The sensing unit will also be independently powered by a battery source.
- A cloud computing server to store and process the data. And an iOS/Android/PC application which can stream the data remotely from the server.
The clothing or outer shell which our device will be mounted on, will be designed by the Mechanical Engineering team.
|15||RC Boat Power and Signal Level Indicator
||- Sanchit Anand
|All of us at some point in time/still play with different RC toys for fun. One of the main problems faced by enthusiasts is the battery life of the toy. Most batteries last only 10-15 minutes at max depending on the usage, which very clearly is a very small time for any user and the user almost always drives the boat to a region where the RF signal level falls and the boat is no longer connected to the remote.
The problem can be solved by providing and indication (as simple as an LED light) which notifies the user whenever the signal strength or the power level falls below a certain threshold and therefore giving the user a chance to save his boat from getting stuck in the middle of the water body leaving him with no real way of recovering it.
1. We propose to implement a battery level indicator, which notifies the user ( via the control unit) once the battery goes below a certain threshold. This will be done by using a comparator and then transmitting the signal through a MCU to the RF remote. We will also consider measuring current consumed(via an ammeter or a hall effect transducer) to approximate battery life.
2. We propose to implement a SDR style receiver which would scan for frequencies at 27 MHz and 49 MHz and indicate the user via a blinking light on the control unit when the signal power falls below a threshold.
3. We propose to implement some sort of tracking mechanism via GPS that will keep tabs on the location of the boat in the event that it drifts out of range of the control unit, or runs out of power. This system can also be leveraged to guide the boat back into signal range.
|16||RFA: Universal Bike Sharing Lock
Universal Bike Sharing Lock
Problem Statement: Prof. Varshney proposed for a ride-sharing service for mopeds and scooters, similar to existing ones for bicycles, due to their similar versatility, but faster travel in urban areas. There isn’t a true leader or standout service for moped sharing at the moment, even though there is a good amount of potential benefits in the service.
Proposed Solution: Our solution steps back a bit and looks more at the sharing portion of Prof. Varshney’s idea. Rather than build a custom vehicle to use for a ride sharing service, we intend to create an electronic lock system for ride sharing that works, independent of the type of ride being used. Our idea is to make a Universal Bike Sharing Lock to use for bikes, scooters, and mopeds.
ECE445 Plan: There are three blocks to the project:
A lock box that houses a normal bike wire lock (and the main electronic components). It can be locked and unlocked using a push-pull solenoid (controlled by the amount of voltage going into it), using a microcontroller to manage this.
A communicating device that can connect a phone to the Sharing Lock (either via web or Bluetooth). The user can then lock and unlock the box (and thus the bike or scooter) based on the ride sharing conditions (handled by software), and track its location and travel.
A software ride share handling system (either a web app or a mobile app). This can manage the actual locking and unlocking of the box, and would be used for paying and managing bikes in practice.
Uniqueness: Unlike other similar bike/scooter sharing services, no custom vehicle is needed to utilize this service. Any sort of bike, scooter, or moped that can be secured with a typical bike lock can connect with this sharing service. The Universal Bike Sharing Lock not only increases the potential rides that can be tracked and secured, but also increases the scope and usability of the bike sharing service.
|17||ATMOSPHERE BASED COLOR CHANGING LAMP
Yu Yeh - email@example.com
Sahil Suhag - firstname.lastname@example.org
Brian Andersen - email@example.com
Being college students, we are used to having a lot of friends over on most nights and nothing really sets the mood better than lighting and music and we wish to capture both of them in a lamp that changes its color/luminance based on the noise level in the room/apartment. This also implies that when there is no noise in the particular space it immediately goes off hence adding an energy saving aspect to the project which we think might be its best capability.
Input: Noise Level detected through an antenna
Output: RGB value based on intensity of the noise level
We use a microphone that detects the sound and sends it to a signal processing block or the ADC which in this case will detect the noise level and convert the signal from analog to digital and pass it on to the microprocessor. The microprocessor controls a voltage controller as a input of RGB led lamp to decide the color and intensity of light. All supplements are support by an extra power supply for providing safe power.
The block diagram:
|18|| Modular Add-On for Headphones to add Noise-Cancelling
|- Tanishq Dubey (tdubey3)
- Harrison Qu (hqu5)
- Yu "Benson" Wang (yuwang15)
There is a burgeoning market for wireless, active-noise cancelling headphones, however, currently, headphones that have these features are very expensive. This leads to a void in the market for cheap noise cancelling headphones that offer good performance. In addition, many already own headphones without advanced features such as noise cancelling and cannot justify paying high prices just for a single feature.
Currently the headphone market is divided into two distinct segments: general consumer grade headphones that cost than or equal to $150, and high end “audiophile” headphones that include the latest features and cost $200 and upwards (some headphones, such as the Sennheiser HD 800 model, can cost $1200 dollars!). Due to the recent removal of the 3.5mm headphones connection as a commodity in mobile devices, bluetooth audio has gone from being a luxury product to being priced with regular consumer headphones. Noise canceling technology, however, has remained at the upper range of the market and is still considered a luxury feature. In fact, simply adding noise cancelling to headsets can raise the price by $100, for example:
We will to make an add-on to headphones, attached to the line-in, that modifies a headphone to be noise-cancelling. We will also attach an amplifier and an app alongside the hardware for noise-cancelling variability, frequency adjustment, volume control. By doing this, it will not only be user-customizable, but also cost-efficient. Our goal is a modular device that is capable of removing 50% of background noise, while maintaining 30% of the cost of popular noise cancelling headsets (it should be noted that this cost takes into account the cost of the module and a set of non-noise cancelling consumer grade headphones). We understand that headphones are made differently, so we’ll also make an application that syncs frequency levels and noise-cancelling levels with the headphone. As previously stated, the goal of this project is not to improve upon noise cancelling, but rather create noise cancelling for the masses.
The control circuit is made up of 2 components, the bluetooth module and the ATMega control, which work together to give wireless control of the noise cancelling circuit via an app that runs on a smartphone. The Bluetooth module communicates with the smartphone running the app so that parameters such as “microphone level”, “microphone mix level”, and “output amp level” can be controlled, allowing for fine-tuning of the NC circuit by the user based on the location/environment they are in. However, the bluetooth module is useless without the ATMega controller, which is used to convert the packets received by the bluetooth controller into actions taken by the NC circuit, effectively acting as a translator between the bluetooth module and the circuit itself.
Noise Cancelling (NC) Circuit:
The noise cancelling circuit is made up of four distinct components that act in a pipeline fashion to produce an output that is noise cancelled audio playing through the user's headphones. The first component is the microphone amp circuit, which takes in the signal from the microphones mounted on the sides of the headphones and amplifies said signal. This is done because the signal from the microphone may not be strong enough to be mixed into the incoming audio signal from the user’s audio source. The second component is the Inverting circuit. This circuit takes input from the microphones attached to the headphones and inverts the signal. This contributes to the noise-cancelling attribute of the headphones as this step is crucial in cancelling external sound waves. The third stage in the pipeline is the mixing circuit. The mixing circuit takes the inverted microphone signal and adds the user’s input audio signal to it. This effectively creates a noise cancelled version of the user’s audio. In addition, if there is no audio coming from the user, then the circuit simply acts as a active noise cancelling headset, still providing silence to the user. The final stage in the pipeline is the output amp. This outputs an amplified version of the noise cancelled signal so that the user can control the output volume from the module itself. The digital potentiometers exist to allow for a control interface between the control circuit and the NC circuit. This allows for wireless control of the NC circuit.
The NC module is made to be powered by a battery, so it can be portable and operate anywhere. This means that two things are required. Firstly, a battery is required to provide power to the entire circuit when it is portable, ideally for extended periods of time. Secondly, a voltage regulation circuit is needed. This circuit will play a twofold role. First, it will regulate voltage between the battery and the NC and control circuits to acceptable levels. Second, it will act as the charging circuit for the battery and will prevent back current to the NC and control circuits while also regulating the charging of the battery.
The smartphone app will be used to control and fine tune the noise canceling of the headphones. This is done by connecting the headphones to the app via bluetooth and then being able to regulate the NC circuit via sliders in the app. The fine tuning of the NC circuit is required because a modular NC unit cannot automatically acclimate to the requirements of the user, the environment the NC module is being used in, and also the placement of the microphones on the headset itself.
Critical Design Decisions:
Frequency Response: Noise cancelling does not cancel out all frequencies. Top of the line headphones have trouble cancelling out anything about 2.5KHz, simply due to the difficulty of that topic. However, they achieve good results by cancelling out lower frequencies (50Hz to 1Khz) in which most background noise is made. Again, we are not claiming to match the performance of the top of the line headphones, because we know we cannot, but instead are reaching at least 50% of their performance, which will be more than sufficient for everyday activities. Most headphones, especially the market we are targeting, mid-range consumer headphones, as stated in our proposal, can handle producing frequencies from 40Hz to 15kHz, and thus should not be a problem to replicate our NC signal on the headsets we are targeting.
Microphone Placement: We are placing the microphones externally on the headphones, which is not an uncommon design, known as Feed-Forward ANC, for a few reasons. Firstly, this is meant to be designed as a consumer add-on to regular headphones, which means that the user should be able to easily mount the microphones to the headphones, ideally through some simple adhesive. Shape and distance from the speaker was also mentioned, and we have thought about this with microphone placement. The external placement of the microphone is done so that our circuit has time to create the NC signal, whose phase with the speaker can be adjusted through an all pass filter.
Other Notes: The bluetooth components can be removed for manual controls if needed due to time constraints.
(Should be noted that the paper above details a highly complex Digital Hybrid ANC project also done in one semester)
|19||Wireless programmable keypad with LED display
The goal of the project is to build a wireless fully programmable keypad with LED screens displaying each key’s current functionality. If the client reassigns a certain key a new value (or a macro), the pattern on the corresponding screen will change to a new one – a digit, a letter, or some abstract graph. In case the client forgets the meaning of a certain key, the pattern could remind him.
Mode 1: number key pad. Most 13’ laptops don’t have it.
Mode 2: multimedia controller. Play or pause the current music or video on the host computer, change the brightness of the screen etc.
First two are predefined and the client could use them directly.
Mode 3: user-defined functionality. It should support macros.
Client can one-click to switch between these modes.
If the keypad has no activity for a long period of time, the LED screens should be dimmed or even turned off in order to reduce the power consumption. It will be back to active status if the user click a key.
Power supply. A 9-volt battery should be sufficient to power the device.
Voltage regulator. A DC-to-DC converter is capable for accepting a wide range of voltage as input and provide the rest of the circuit with a stable voltage source.
Transceiver. We will purchase a Bluetooth module on market and use the corresponding existing firmware. Basically, we will consider it as a black box – bits from microcontroller will be encoded and transmitted to the host, and vice versa the microcontroller receives decoded bits stream from this component.
Keys. Either 3x6 or 4x4 push button switches will be used to stimulate the real keys. In order to save GPIO of the microcontroller, they will be connected by grid of wires to form a matrix. One switch (or key if you call it) is reserved so that the client can switch between modes by one-clicking it. The rest keys are fully programmable.
LED screen. A single large LED screen or a multitude small surface mount LEDs will be used.
Microcontroller. As the data path and control unit of the whole circuit, every other component will be connected to it. A second minor microcontroller might be used as a GPU to solely handle the display of LED screen if the major one’s duty is too heavy.
Miscellaneous. Power button – slide switch. Power level indicator – one red and one green LED. Signal strength indicator – a series of monochrome LEDs.
Other features we might add:
The client could manually change the brightness of the LED screens by a rotating a disc-like switch.
An IF sensor that detect the existence of the client. If the hand of client is close to the keypad, the device should be reactivated from idle status.
|20||Smartphone-controlled Toy Boat with Purification System
|Problem: If the toy boat goes too far away from user, the signal of remote control will get weaker and the boat will be out of control. In addition, it could be an waste of time if we just play with it, so we added more productive ability to the boat; water purification using ozone.
Idea: Our idea of this project is based on Professor Michael Oezle’s suggestion of Toy boat Upgrade. We developed this idea with Bluetooth communication so that the user can get warning of battery usage and distance from the user. If battery is too low or distance between user and boat is too far away, then User Interface (smartphone application) will show warning sign to the user. Moreover, we will add ozone system into toy boat, so that the user can purify water while they enjoy playing it. This would be really an unique project since there's no toy boat that can purify water and provide pleasure of playing it at the same time.
(1) Power supply
Battery: Two 9V batteries will be used to supply enough amount of voltage that can run every component on the board.
The voltage value will be measured on the power supply system and will be transferred to the Microcontroller. If the voltage goes under the certain threshold, the microcontroller will send the warning signal to the user via Bluetooth.
(2) Components on Circuit
With 2 axes of the accelerometer, the velocity of the boat will be calculated on the microcontroller, and the calculated value will be transferred to the user via Bluetooth.
We will be using four flow sensors attached around the boat, and the direction of the flow can be calculated by adding/subtracting their values accordingly. By knowing how the water flows, we can adjust the movement of the boat for higher efficiency of purification.
We will use three small DC motors for our boat. Two for going forward and one for moving backward. The two motors on the back will be used to control the direction of the boat as well.
We will connect a chip that produces 2 grams of ozone per an hour from oxygen on the air ( this amount of ozone can purify 200-300 gallons of water).
There should be an ozone sensor to control the density of the ozone to be produced.
Since we have to program all the functionality of the chip, it will not be just a plug and play, but would be a hard work that requires delicate programming for the chip itself. In addition, the chip requires significantly high voltage (~1000V), we might need an thorough understanding of the amplifiers that can provide such a high voltage.
(3) Bluetooth Communication
Using the Bluetooth module attached on the microcontroller, the communication between the boat and the user will be enabled. We will develop an android smartphone application ourselves to control the boat, and the user will receive multiple signals from the boat regarding the flow of the water, amount of ozone, distance from the boat, and battery condition.
|21||Pressure Detection: Improving Prosthetics Efficacy
|Psyonic is a local startup that is developing an affordable prosthetic hand for people with upper-limb amputations. Currently, they have a completed and working product that uses electromyography (EMG) to enable the patient to operate the hand. However, they face several obstacles in the prosthetic-arm interface. One of their main challenges is that the EMG signal incurs a lot of noise from many sources, such as high impedance of the skin, external shock, shifting of the arm, and more. This results in unintended movement of the prosthetic fingers. After communicating with the Psyonic team, we believe that we can overcome many existing obstacles by replacing the existing EMG model with a model based on pressure sensing.
Our project’s proposed solution mainly consists of three components: (1) Circuitry to collect, process, and store the pressure sensor inputs; (2) Machine learning model that classifies different intensity map patterns from pressure sensor reads to a set of hand finger movements; and (3) Microcontroller executing code to interface with the hardware component and run the classification algorithms.
(1) The hardware component needs to convert the analog signals from the pressure sensors to digital signals and ready them for processing by the microcontroller. This will involve operational amplification, sampling, quantization, filtering (to reduce noise), and likely storage in registers. Since the PCB needs to successfully integrate into Psyonic’s existing product, it has to satisfy a number of constraints. First, it needs to be small enough to easily fit into the prosthetic casing. It also has to run efficiently in the low-power environment used in their current product. Finally, it will need to be able to read data from a large number of pressure sensors, as many will be required to produce useful and classifiable data.
(2) Classification of the pressure sensor data has to at least be on par with the performance of the current EMG model. We need to train a machine learning model that has higher prediction accuracy and lower latency as compared to the current model.
(3) The microcontroller will likely be an off-the-shelf component. It will need to have the processing power required to efficiently run the machine learning algorithms, while simultaneously satisfying the requirements identified earlier for the PCB.
Overall, we expect this to be a very challenging- but doable- senior design project. Collectively, our group members have prior experience in the areas of machine learning, embedded systems, and sensors/DSP. Although this is not a novel invention, it is an innovation; we hope to help improve Psyonic's product, enabling better living for disadvantaged amputees worldwide.
|22||Programmable Pill Dispenser
Chris Kalebich - kalebch2
Matt Colletti - mccolle2
The PROBLEM we are going to solve is sorting and remembering when to take medication.
Our PLAN is to design and create a machine that features the ability to hold and accurately dispense (one pill per dose with no room for error) entire bottles of medication, and also a user interface to properly program the user’s appropriate medication schedule. This project will utilize an LCD display, buttons, and an alarm for user interface; a special housing and motors to electro-mechanically sort and dispense; and most importantly, a microcontroller to handle the programming and automation of the scheduled dosage! Our block diagram in writing features a power source (with added circuitry) supplying our microcontroller and PCB, UI peripherals, and automation motors, and the microcontroller, which communicates bi-directionally with the UI and uni-directionally with the motors. Excitingly, this project will result in the creation of a product that is not currently available to the public.
Our MOTIVATION is to help the elderly, disabled, and anyone else who takes medication sort and remember when to take their doses! Current offerings of mildly similar products require manual sorting of pills into individual daily groupings with or without alarms for when to take them. The shortcoming of this is if one is to take the pills at different times during the day they have to have multiple pill sorters for each time they need to take each pill or they have to pile them all into one slot and then go back and double check when to take what. All of this can lead to confusion for elderly or sick patients. Our design will take the complexity out of this process. One simply has to have the machine programmed correctly the first time, and it will dispense the medication in the proper dosage at the proper time each day. As a result, relatives and doctors alike can relax knowing that their patients are being properly medicated each day.
|23||Autonomous Motorized Mount for PATHS Sensor
|PROJECT TEAM MEMBERS:
Quoc Pham - qpham2
Alexander Hernandez - maherna4
Brandon Bogue - bbogue2
This project was proposed and is sponsored by Professor Waldrop.
One of the current challenges in atmospheric research has been the ability to study the density, spatial distribution, and temporal variability. Therefore, the PATHS project has been proposed to implement remote sensing and controls theory to capture the “airglow” emission of Hydrogen for computing its density. This project will allow to overcome single-line-of-sight viewing geometry by allowing multi-angle viewing through a common volume to enable tomographic formulation for solving an inverse problem which will yield accurate H density.
The PATHS instrument used in this project is a novel ground-based photometer that will capture the brightness of H airglow along multiple lines-of-sight in an array configuration. The sensors used in the array are ~20x40 cm binocular optical assemblies, one of which must move over the course of the night.
The PATHS sensor needs to be pointed very precisely, within a fraction of a degree. It also needs to act semi-autonomously given a set of spherical coordinates, as it is grossly impractical to have a human attempt to directly control it.
We aim to achieve control by creating an automatable pointing mount for a mass model replica of the PATHS ground-based photometer array, as well as the software to steer it. This will be accomplished through modification of an existing commercial motorized pointing mount. This modification will largely consist of the integration of a PID-based control system, as well as allowing external communication.
The system will have control of two angles, the altitude and the azimuth, allowing the system to traverse the entire upper half sphere, autonomously identify an approximate system rotation to allow for precise calibration, be able to move smoothly between two spherical points, and have any other modes deemed necessary for proper functionality.
This system will communicate with an external device to receive commands and log exact position. For instance, the external device could supply two sets of spherical coordinates and a duration, causing the system to smoothly travel between those coordinates in the specified duration.
SUMMARY OF COMPONENTS:
- Commercial Pointing Mount
- Two motors
- 3D printed mass model of sensor
- Various parts for the assembly
- Possibly diagnostics (temperature sensor) for equipment protection and calibration
|24||Coat Hanger Light Switch Controller
|Kate Eaton (kkeaton2) and El Alitz (alitz2)
PROBLEM: When leaving the house, I often forget to turn off lights, which uses extraneous electricity and drives up living costs.
SOLUTION: When grabbing my coat/purse off of the coat hanger on the way out the door, a sensor in the coat hanger notices that the jacket/purse is no longer there, and communicates with a remote fixture placed over light switches that will physically manipulate the light switches to be "off" in the house.
UNIQUE: There are coat hangers on the market that will already perform tasks to the clothing hung on the coat hanger (such as hangers that will dry clothing), but no hangers that interact remotely with other household implements. In the future, this could be included in smart home upgrades.
-pressure sensor for sensing whether there is a coat/purse
-PCB for sensing/control
-Bluetooth or RF communication point
-LEDs as a battery indicators for hanger and fixture
-Watch battery (CR2032) as power source
-printed/plastic housing to protect electrical components on hanger from a wet or soiled coat/purse
The circuit will be low-voltage and DC in order to allow the hanger to be mobile. The pressure sensor, which is probably going to be a form of variable resistance, will control a diode that powers the remote signal. (We don't have a lot of experience with remote signalling outside of with shields -- suggestions here are welcome). This circuit will also power an LED that will turn on when the voltage from the local battery gets low.
LIGHT SWITCH FIXTURE
-SCR for current control
-Bluetooth/RF communication point
-Watch battery as power source
-Insulating housing for the above to isolate from 120V AC system (possibly in the shape of a light switch cover)
This component will physically manipulate the light switch. Upon receiving a signal, this component reads the position of the servo, moves it into the "down" configuration if it isn't already there, then returns to idle. This circuit is also powered by a small DC source.
At the power switch, an SCR may be more appropriate than a servo. There are power conversion concepts to be reconciled.... AC / DC, 120V (at light switch) / DC V??
Honestly, our intention was to make it manipulate the physical switch for two reasons: 1) as a consumer grade product, it seems safer to not go "inside" the house electrical system, and 2) it then is really easy to manually reset if it goes wrong. However, using an SCL and building the functionality into a new light switch cover seems doable. In this case, I'm inclined to still want to build the SCL circuit with a small DC battery just because I have more practice with DC circuitry, and include a "RESET" capability that will allow the light to turn on even if there has not been a signal from the hanger allowing otherwise.
I've updated the proposal above to include this change.
|25||EOH Hand Generator Upgrade
Serena Ahuja (sahuja4)
Ayush Kumar (akumar49)
Project Title: EOH Hand Generator Upgrade
Currently, Engineering Open House has a hand crank generator that it uses to demonstrate how a winding rotating through a static magnetic field induces a voltage at the winding's terminals.
The existing generator system has a hand crank that the student rotates producing a pair of voltage waveforms (the shaft has 2 mechanically orthogonal windings). The induced voltages are displayed on the oscilloscope -- showing periodic voltage waveform with frequency and amplitude dependent upon the crank's rotational speed.
The existing system falls short because it does not display phase relationships -- specifically between shaft position, the physical position/orientation of the orthogonal windings, and the voltages induced at the winding terminals. The requirement is to sense the rotor's mechanical position and display it as a voltage on the oscilloscope alongside the induced voltages from the two windings. Additionally, the device is to display the shaft's rotational velocity in RPM and Rad/s as numbers.
The product we envision is a stand alone device that receives data from an encoder attached to the generator shaft. We will use the microprocessor to produce two things:
1) An analog voltage waveform (to be determined -- must make intuitive sense to the audience) representing the shaft's mechanical phase that will be displayed on the oscilloscope.
2) Digital rotational speed data to be presented on the digital display (LED or LCD to be determined).
Scope of the Project:
The device will be mounted on the EOH hand crank generator provide a voltage waveform representing the rotor's mechanical position for oscilloscope display that a broad audience intuitively understands -- middle school students, college students, and adults. The device will display the rotor's rotational speed in both RPM and Rad/s. The device will be appropriately documented so that EOH volunteers can easily set up the display -- and if necessary have documentation describing the device's design/function to facilitate any necessary repairs.
From an architectural standpoint, demonstrator system is composed of the generator, oscilloscope, and the position detector. The generator and oscilloscope are "black boxes" from and to which signals flow. Our design effort is on the "position detector". This will be made of up four (perhaps 5) submodules: microprocessor, encoder, an LED display (rotational speed data), and power supplies (microprocessor, LED display, voltage waveform generation, w/voltage regulation (if required))
1. The encoder will provide rotor position data; the selected encoder will seamlessly provide data for both clockwise and counter-clockwise rotation. We have done some research in how this will be outputted from the chip and the output will be a set of pulse train signals. This can then be sent to the microprocessor to update how the rotor is moving.
2. The microprocessor processes encoder data to produce the voltage waveform (mechanical phase) and digital speed data to be displayed.
3. The LED display will show the rotor rotational speed to the audience in both RPM and Rad/s. The two values will labeled to show RPM and Rad/s respectively.
4. The microprocessor, power supply(ies), and power source (or connection) will be mounted on a circuit board that we will design for this application.
5. The board and display will be permanently mounted for simple installation and ease of use during demonstrations. Wire connections must be simple.
Test of Functionality:
The device provides a voltage waveform displayed on the oscilloscope that intuitively depicts the relationship between the shaft's mechanical position and the voltage produced by the generator's two orthogonal windings.
The speed display accurately displays rotational velocity in RPM and Rad/S.
Improvements to physical connections (i.e. oscilloscope lead connection points) will ensure the systems works when connected (the first time). The existing connections are cumbersome and unreliable.
Time permitting, we will experiment with adding electrical loads (Resistive, Capacitive, and/or Inductive) can be connected to the rotor winding terminals to display currents on the oscilloscope's 4th channel using a current probe.
|26||RC Car Range Detection and Alert System
|Aaron Sowers (asowers2)
Sameeth Gosike (gosike2)
Rebecca Cole (rjcole2)
Often, as a user of an R/C car is enjoying driving, the radio signal from the controller may fall out of range as the car drives away from the controller. When the R/C car falls out of range, the R/C car will no longer move and the controller must either walk in the direction of the car, assuming they know where it is, or must go find the car. Our proposed solution is to first alert the user that the car is going out of range by indicator lights at controller and possibly a buzzer or vibration mechanism on the controller since most users do not look at the controllers as they operate the RC vehicles. Additionally, we can implement an LED light or Buzzer on the vehicle to announce its rough location.
In order to implement this, a bandpass filter circuit can be used to limit the frequency range and then have separate circuitry to determine the power being transmitted on that range. A MCU can be used to determine if the receiving signal power is over/under threshold and feed this data to the controller through a RF transmitter/receiver or Bluetooth communication. The data feed to the controller will instruct which lights need to be on at any given time.
The final item that we can implement is instructions on how to bring the car within range when it is near the end of the available range. While a return vector and autonomous return function can be implemented, we believe this takes away from the user’s control of the vehicle and that it may be an undesirable function. Therefore, we will implement another LED/announcement system that can notify the user whether to go forward, left, right or reverse to bring the car back into a reasonable range. This will also help the user understand where the car is if they do not have visual contact with the car.
|Based on a conversation we had with Dr. Reinhard after lecture today, we have an update to our project proposal.
Andy Lai, Michael Wu
There are a couple of unfortunate situations that may arise from leaving windows open in attempts to regulate temperature during the night or while away from the house. If the temperature outside becomes undesirable while away from the house, it makes for a very unpleasant experience when re-entering; leaving the windows open at night could have adverse health effects. A storm blowing in unknowingly could result in undesired humidity or water in the living space.
The solution is to have a window that closes based on a suite of external sensors (we're currently considering temperature, rain, and atmospheric pressure sensors). When a close-window-condition is met, a couple of IR sensors will work to evaluate if the window is opened or closed, thus evaluating the need to activate the motor. The IR sensors will be polled regularly to ensure that no extra stress is placed on the housing by the motor.
There are rain, temperature, and pressure sensors that can be purchased online. We also plan on having the temperature setting to be user-programmable via a potentiometer and a comparison circuit. To power our project, we’ll be using wall voltage coupled with appropriate AC-DC converters and resistor divider networks to step voltages down to appropriate levels for circuit elements. We plan on using a microcontroller to be the interface between our sensors and motor. We plan on using casement windows for the purposes of this project.
In summary, we need a sensor module that feeds into the control module which will control the mechanical elements of our project.
|28||I/O system design for the PSYONIC Advanced Bionic Hand
|PSYONIC is a startup on campus that is developing an affordable prosthetic hand for people with upper-limb amputations worldwide. Their prototypes have reached a high level of functionality, and they are now moving the design towards production hardware. While the core functionality of the hand is well-integrated, auxiliary functionality such as battery charging and external I/O are either nonexistent or require specialized hardware to be used.
We propose designing a new PCB for PSYONIC’s prosthetic hand, to be known as the I/O board. This board will integrate all the external I/O necessary for the prosthetic arm. It will contain two external interfaces, namely USB type-C and Bluetooth. USB type-C allows for rapid battery charging and wired data communications. Bluetooth enables the hand to be capable of wireless data transfer. These interfaces will let us build an API that will let us, and more importantly, clinicians perform a variety of remote control and configuration tasks. This includes the ability to query and write values that control various aspects of the hand’s operation, such as the finger speed sensitivity or the battery charge level. While there are COTS solutions for individual aspects of this problem, there is no commercially available solution that can perform all the required functionality, let alone in the space constraints the project requires.
Successful implementation of this project will involve accomplishing four major goals. First, the I/O board will contain four major circuit blocks: A USB-PD controller, which controls a USB power source which can be used to charge the hand's batteries; a lithium-ion battery charger and voltage regulator; a Bluetooth-enabled microcontroller, which communicates with external devices and sends commands to the hand itself; and a USB serial interface controller, which enables the microcontroller to communicate with a USB host. Second, the project will also require an additional interface on the electromyography (EMG) board to communicate with the I/O board, which might require updating the EMG board. Third, this project will require us to develop software to manage the Bluetooth and USB interfaces and pass commands to the EMG board. Lastly, we will need to modify the EMG board software to accept commands from the I/O board.
|29||Modular Analog Synthesizer
| Robert Olsen and Joshua Stockton would like to create a rebirth/reimagining of the classic analog synthesizer. It will be similar to previous modular synthesizers, but will instead have a different user interface. Regarding project 1 from Spring 17, our synthesizer is different in that it is not a sequencer. Each wave is generated by the activation of a momentary switch, feeding off of a chain of resistors (or other form of regulating the VCO), each node corresponding to a different frequency of note to be played.
Robert Olsen and Joshua Stockton would like to create a rebirth/reimagining of the classic analog synthesizer. It will be similar to previous modular synthesizers, but will instead have a different user interface. Regarding project 1 from Spring 17, our synthesizer is different in that it is not a sequencer. Each wave is generated by the activation of a momentary switch, feeding off of a chain of resistors (or other form of regulating the VCO), each node corresponding to a different frequency of note to be played.
Components of our project will contain, but are not limited to, a VCO (pair of op amps configured with resistors and capacitors depending on which wave is being produced) , amplifiers (op amps again), filters to improve sound quality (at the very least, a low pass filter to eliminate very high frequencies and noise), an arpeggiator (for this, we would use a microcontroller to automatically scroll through the notes pressed in an ascending order), and a unique user interface. Our proposed user interface is a grid of momentary switches (probably 24x3 in order to get two octaves of notes with three waveforms each) where each column corresponds to a unique pitch, and each row corresponds to a unique waveform (square, sine, and triangle waves). This level of user interactivity hasn’t been released before and could, for example, serve as a learning tool to teach new players or audio engineers the different qualities of a sound on a basic level. Included will also be a potentiometer for both volume and pitch shifting as well as a rotary switch to switch between octaves easily.
|30||Multi-entertainment Tic Tac Toe Game
We want to build a smart device that can play tic tack toe, like an arcade game, but in electric design. The game offers functions include normal tic tac toe game, retract a false move, restart, human VS AI mode and human VS human mode and other fancy effects to make it more like a game that we have in the video game center.
---The board is composed of two parts: a section comprised of 9 blocks of LED/LCD and another section that displays score and rounds. The tic tac toe board is made by 9 8*8 LED/LCD blocks and 8 pressure sensors under each block.
---The pressure sensors will be made by poking two wires into the foam. When human player press on one of the blocks of the board, a current change would be produced by the pressure sensors and the analog signal from the sensor would be sent to an A/D converting circuit. Finally, the microprocessor would receive the digital signal from A/D converting circuit. The microprocessor knows which cell human have selected and then make a decision as a virtual player.
---The chosen block made by the virtual player will be displayed on the corresponding LED/LCD block (noughts or crosses). There would be a logic circuit for controlling each pixel of the LED/LCD blocks too (total: 576 LEDs/LCDs).
The other section for score display and round number will also be made by LED/LCD blocks and controlled by the microprocessor. The extra LED/LCD blocks show words like "Congratulation! You win!", "Start", "Your Turn". Circuit design would be similar to that on the board.
---A power source will provide power for both LED/LCD and sensors. Since we will use only one input voltage, voltage regulators will need to be built.
---Finally, some buttons will be added for functions such as restarting the game and clearing the score. More effects such as celebrating sound would be added in the future to make this more like a game or make this fancier. Our goal is to make an interesting 445 project that can make people feel delighted and enjoyable.
P.S. If we have time, we may add remote play mode, which would require Bluetooth module.
Rauhul Varma - rvarma2
Naren Dasan - sivagna2
The environment people live and work in has a deep impact on many things including mood, psychological health and productivity. Simple changes like having the correct color temperature at different times of the day or or having the environment handle simple background tasks to reduce cognitive load may help people live happier and healthier lives. However, the main blockers to having these intelligent environments widely deployed include cost and rigidity of the system (i.e. the system cannot be torn down and rebuilt easily or parts are hard to replace).
Our project seeks to explore creating intelligent spaces using self organizing materials. In particular we look to create a ceiling mounted lighting system that allows for more intelligent behavior than standard lighting. For example, the system could compensate for the outdoor lighting conditions to moderate color temperature, it could provide alerts to users or have more whimsical applications such as music visualizations.
We want installation of the system to be trivial, so the system should be compatible with standard ceiling tiles and it should self organize so tearing down and reconfiguring the system is easy, and it should also not require any significant external control for its operations. Developers should be able to program the entire system with a simple API.
The system should have no more than an order of magnitude greater expense over current lighting systems used in buildings like ECEB and Siebel Center and should run off standard AC Power again to make installation easy.
Intelligent Lighting is a common application in the world of internet of things. Examples like Nanoleaf.me, Philips Hue and LIFX all provide “smart” functionality. But most require a controller or hub, all require an external app and none are plug and play. They also all target the consumer market and as such use form factors far less common in workplaces.
Our project seeks to improve the usability of intelligent systems by looking to use current user habits to control the system (e.g the main controller is the light switch, but state is maintained for the the next time it is turned on) instead of forcing a new paradigm. We also remove all setup other than mounting and plugging in.
Adjusts color temperature based on time of day
Run off standard AC wall power
No companion app
The backbone of each light is a Raspberry Pi Zero responsible for communicating with the other lights and determining what ‘state’ the light should be in. Though the self organizing functionality of the project can be accomplished on a microcontroller, we choose the Pi because it provides a full networking stack and provides developers using the system a comfortable environment to develop applications.
We will be designing a custom daughter board for the Pi; it will include a power supply for the Pi and LEDs to run off of standard AC power using a full bridge rectifier and a buck transformer. Additionally the daughter board will include an LED driver circuit (possibly an ATMEGA).
We have made a couple prototypes of the system based of a Pi and a Teensy.
PAST PROJECT EXPERIENCE
We both have previous project experience through ACM@UIUC; managing the Groot and Merch projects (https://github.com/orgs/acm-uiuc/projects/1) (https://github.com/orgs/acm-uiuc/projects/3)
We also have past experience working in Self Organizing Materials, specifically in reconfigurable smart walls. The system was based fully on a custom control board with a microcontroller and a distributed systems protocol called XGrid. Work included work with power systems, sensors, real time operating systems, and user interface design.
More can be read here http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2540967
The University of Illinois ACM Student Chapter is sponsoring this project and has acquired much of the initial materials needed to begin work on the project.
|32||Blind spot warning for cyclists
|Objective: Create a blind spot warning system that warns cyclists that an object is in close proximity from behind.
Setup Strategy: We use a bunch of rear ultrasonic sensors and LED bulbs installed on the handle. When a moving object approaches from behind and reaches within 3m of cyclist, the ultrasonic sensors report to the microcontroller, which will turn on the corresponding LED light to indicate location.
The LED light bulbs each has 3 different LEDs (red, yellow, green), indicating distance to the object respectively from close to far.
Ultrasonic sensors (max range 3-4m), LED lights with different colors, microcontroller, customized PCB board.
|33||Remote Controlled Electrical Outlet
Yuqiao Huang yhuang96
Shiyuan Zhu szhu36
In many laboratories or hospitals, the socket is a really important part for safety. Many equipments have a very strict requirements for the power supply system. Uncautious using electricity may cause a lot of problems such as damage of equipments, fire and hurt the people. If we can monitor the power supply of the socket and alert the user, we can avoid the accident in advance.
Proposed Project and Solution:
We want to build a socket that can be analyzed by the microcontroller in power and current and send these data to the computer. Depend on the value of the power and current, the computer would send the signal back if something goes wrong and shut down the power to protect the socket and devices. This smart socket mainly contains three parts. Control System is to use remote controller to open or shut down the power supply manually. Monitoring System is to collect the data, including voltage, current, power, temperature and etc. Protection System is to analyse the data and find whether its behavior is normal. If it shows abnormal, it will shut down automatically. The most important part in our project is the microcontroller. So we decide to use STC12C5A60S2 as our main microcontroller and build a circuit based on it.
Linear Voltage Regulator LM7805
|34||NAND/NOR Logic Gate Replacement Training Tool
|This proposal is an adaptation to the Logic Circuit Teaching Board from Spring 2015 (#3).
Our group both benefited from an early start to the engineering learning process in high school through Project Lead the Way (PLTW) courses. There were classes in a variety of different engineering fields, but the one that led us to ECE was the Digital Electronics class. Here we got exposure to basic laws of circuits, such as KVL and KCL, as well as to circuit implementation of Boolean logic.
In our introductory classes in ECE, we covered the conversion of certain logic gates to their NAND equivalent with the goal of reducing the number of necessary IC chips in a circuit. The project we are proposing is a two-part board, with pieces representing two input-one output logic gates. One side holds the original implementation using AND, OR, and Inverter gates, while the other side holds either NAND or NOR gates. The goal is to match the resulting outputs of the two sides, which will be displayed by some sort of indicator.
To track the logic that is currently plugged into each side of the circuit, we will display the truth tables of the given setup.
Parts of the project:
-Casing and board design simulating up to a 3-input and 2-output circuit
-Power supply from the wall
-Control circuit that displays the truth table based off the circuit plugged in
-Comparator circuit that will see if the truth tables for both sides match
|35||Sun tracking solar panel
|We propose to build a solar panel that tracks the movement of the sun to ensure that it receives maximal possible energy at any given time of the day. This project will eventually be integrated with the solar powered street lamp project, where our solar panel will provide the energy source for the street lamp. The motivation is to maximize the amount of energy received from the Sun throughout the day for battery storage, which will power the street light.
There are two main technical aspects to this project:
1. The maneuvering of the panel according to the position of the Sun
2. The reset of position at sunset/cloudy days so that the lamp is ready to receive light the following morning
The maneuvering or tracking mechanism will move on 2 rotational axes to fully track ranges of latitudes and longitudes. We considered using 8 photo resistors, 2 placed in each quadrant of the solar panel. These photo resistors would be placed 45 degrees relative to each other. The system would adjust to make the two readings from photo resistors in a pair equal to each other. This would mean you are pointed at the sun (or the brightest point in the sky on a cloudy day). We also would consider using a Sun Sensor, which could provide information about the sun angle with respect to the sensor or if the sensor has the sun in view. This would depend on which Sun Sensor we decide to buy. Mechanically, we plan to use a small motor with a high gear ratio to maneuver the panel as suggested by Professor Kevin Colravy.
For the reset mechanism, we plan to use a minimum threshold voltage below which the panel would reset to a 12 noon position and not move, as movement to the position of most light at this point would not be an efficient use of its battery charge. Thus, once at a noon position, the panel is in a good position to detect light from all sides again. This mechanism will surely be used for sunset, but for cloudy days, we could find alternatives to ensure that we still can sense the sun. Professor Reinhard and Bryce talked to Kevin Colravy today about using IR sensors to track the sun behind the clouds on a cloudy day.
A possible issue was that light from the street lamp would artificially affect the solar panel’s effectiveness. As of today, the plan is to mount the panel and sensors above the street lamp thus, the light from the street lamp affecting the solar panel is not a probability. However, to account for that possibility anyway, we could have the control circuit that turns the light on (assuming the sun is set), reset the panel to face the sunrise and turn off the control to turn the panel.
In terms of design, we plan to make this a unit that is steady, stable, and mountable on metal pole-like surfaces. We will build and attach a clear protective layer on top of the solar panel that will protect from snow, hail and rain. The surface will be semi circular in shape so snow can not collect on top of the surface.
|36||Environmental Sensing for cyclists
|Gu Zhaoxin, NETID: zgu14
Hu Yanda, NETID: yandahu2
Jiayi Ke, NETID: jiayike2
Turning your head will riding a bike can be dangerous. This project is inspired by the mirrors on some cars that shows an arrow when a car in next to you so you will be aware of those cars while merging line.
This project aims to help cyclists detect hazards such as cars or motorcycles around them by using ultra sound. We are using several sonar sensors which sends signals to the motors to a vest the user is wearing in order to signal which side exists a hazard that will endanger the cyclist. The sonar sensors will go on my bike for the demo as there are many positions that sensors can be locked on without interfering with the basic functionalities of the bike. We are thinking of connecting ultrasound sensors in multiple directions pointing in the right, left and back direction, or on a servo in order to rotate and detect hazards in a larger area behind the user.
When the sensors are on the bike, we will use wireless Bluetooth or other method to connect the sonar sensors to the user’s motors in the vest. We looked up a sonar sensor which has a range of 4m which will be sufficient for hazard detection behind and beside the user.
We will be using a power source that will provide power for the motors and circuit within the vest, and a separate power source such as a battery for the sonar sensors that will be connected to the bike.
|Problem: It can be difficult for a new player to learn chess, especially if they have no one to play with. They would have to resort to online guides which can be distracting when playing with a real board. If they have no one to play with, they would again have to resort to online games which just don't have the same feel as real boards.
Proposal: We plan to create an assistive chess board. The board will have the following features:
-The board will be able to suggest a move by lighting up the square of the move-to space and square under the piece to move.
-The board will light up valid moves when a piece is picked up and flash the placed square if it is invalid.
-We will include a chess clock for timed play with stop buttons for players to signal the end of their turn.
-The player(s) will be able to select different standard time set-ups and preferences for the help displayed by the board.
Implementation Details: The board lights will be an RGB LED under each square of the board. Each chess piece will have a magnetic base which can be detected by a magnetic field sensor under each square. Each piece will have a different strength magnet inside it to ID which piece is what (ie. 6 different magnet sizes for the 6 different types of pieces). Black and white pieces will be distinguished by the polarity of the magnets. The strength and polarity will be read by the same magnetic field sensor under each square. The lights will have different colors for the different piece that it is representing as well as for different signals (ie. An invalid move will flash red).
The chess clock will consist of a 7-segment display in the form of (h:mm:ss) and there will be 2 stop buttons, one for each side, to signal when a player’s turn is over. A third button will be featured near the clock to act as a reset button. The combination of the two stop switches and reset button will be used to select the time mode for the clock. Each side of the board will also have a two toggle-able buttons or switches to control whether move help or suggested moves should be enabled on that side of the board. The state of the decision will be shown by a lit or unlit LED light near the relevant switch.
|38||Wireless Bicycle Notification
Suriya Kodeswaran - kodeswa2
Larry Liu - lliu65
Kevin Tian - ktian2
Problem: While there is an implied system for cyclists to communicate between people, other cyclists, and cars, there is no universal method and often signs could be misleading.
Solution: We propose to have a glove for the cyclist to wear which communicates wirelessly with two arrow lights as well as a break light that is attached to the bar that is attached to the seat. When the cyclist waves the hand to the left or to the right the respective arrow lights up through an accelerometer sensor which will last for 5 seconds. To determine when the user is breaking the sensors on the fingers can detect if the user is pulling on the break. The benefit for this solution is that it allows the cyclist to use one system on multiple bikes easily. Another functionality we are thinking of implementing is that if the cyclist falls we have powerful LED's on the glove to turn on so cars/other people can avoid them.
------ updated summary ------
After talking a TA during office hours, she suggested that we list out a final summary of our proposal. Hopefully this will help outline our overall idea:
Our focus on this bike system is to have pressure sensors constructed into a sleeve that would be put onto a portion of both handles. When these sleeve are pressed, LED lights on the back of the bike (under the seat) will be activated via Bluetooth communication. Once the rider has completed his/her turn and is riding in somewhat straight line again, the accelerometers will detect this and turn off the blinking LEDs.
In addition to these features, we will utilize ultrasonic and infrared sensors in a small circuit attached to the back of the bike (using some form of strap). We plan to have this more advanced feature to act as a blind spot detector. Using both sensors, we should be able to provide a warning to the rider (via small LEDs on the handlebars) if a vehicle is approaching. The TA suggested we look into the LIDAR module for this task. Also, this will serve as a simple method for warning the rider where it's definitely on the safer side to have false positives (from detection of non-vehicle objects such as trees or fences).
|39|| Parking Space Monitoring System
|PROBLEM: Finding an open parking space in a crowded parking lot is often a long and frustrating endeavor. By placing a system that monitors parking lot space status (occupied or vacant) in the parking lot and visually displays space status to the driver, it would make it far easier for the driver to identify open spaces quickly.
SOLUTION: Give visual indication to driver about location of vacant spots to reduce the time taken to identify and drive to a vacant spot.
Spots will be monitored for vacancy/occupancy using a proximity sensor which transmits data to a centralized data collector which processes data to present to incoming driver. Light bulbs at parking spots will indicate vacant/occupied through color difference (RED vs GREEN).
Typical parking lots do not present incoming drivers with any data or visual markers regarding the vacancy/occupancy of spots. Especially in large and crowded parking lots, this proves to be a significant time issue when it comes to locating an open spot. This system would provide drivers with useful data to make finding a spot much easier.
IR Proximity Sensor - Placed at car bumper height in horizontal direction. If a car comes within range of the IR sensor, the light will be reflected back and the sensor will detect the car as occupying the space.
LED Light Bulb - Connected to output of the proximity sensor. If the sensor is detecting a car in the parking spot, the light output of the bulb should be RED. If not, the light output of the bulb should be GREEN.
Prox Sensor RF Transceiver - Connected to multiple prox sensors. This module will be capable of transmitting the data for those multiple proximity sensors to the RF transceiver at the central data collection module when that data is requested by the central data RF transceiver. This module is basically a slave being polled by the master (transceiver at the central data collector). (EDITED)
RF Transceiver at Central Data Collector - Polls the various RF transceivers responsible for getting prox sensor data one at a time. This ensures that only one Prox Sensor RF Transceiver will be transmitting its data to the central hub at a time, which eliminates issue of having multiple transmitters attempting to transmit to a single receiver. This transceiver is the "Master" transceiver responsible for polling. (EDITED)
Centralized Data Collector - Stores data from the proximity sensors in the parking lot. Presents live digital readout on LCD showing data visually to the incoming drivers
Power Module - Provides power to the system
|40||Recovery-Monitoring Knee Brace
Dong Hyun Lee
Jong Yoon Lee
Thanks to modern technology, it is easy to encounter a wide variety of wearable fitness devices such as Fitbit and Apple Watch in the market. Such devices are designed for average consumers who wish to track their lifestyle by counting steps or measuring heartbeats. However, it is rare to find a product for the actual patients who require both the real-time monitoring of a wearable device and the hard protection of a brace.
Personally, one of our teammates ruptured his front knee ACL and received reconstruction surgery a few years ago. After ACL surgery, it is common to wear a knee brace for about two to three months for protection from outside impacts, fast recovery, and restriction of movement. For a patient who is situated in rehabilitation after surgery, knee protection is an imperative recovery stage, but is often overlooked. One cannot deny that such a brace is also cumbersome to put on in the first place.
Our group aims to make a wearable device for people who require a knee brace by adding a health monitoring system onto an existing knee brace. The fundamental purpose is to protect the knee, but by adding a monitoring system we want to provide data and a platform for both doctor and patients so they can easily check the current status/progress of the injury.
1) Average person with leg problems
2) Athletes with leg injuries
3) Elderly people with discomforts
Temperature sensors : perhaps in the form of electrodes, they will be used to measure the temperature of the swelling of the knee, which will indicate if recovery is going smoothly.
Pressure sensors : they will be calibrated such that a certain threshold of force must be applied by the brace to the leg. A snug fit is required for the brace to fulfill its job.
EMG circuit : we plan on constructing an EMG circuit based on op-amps, resistors, and capacitors. This will be the circuit that is intended for doctors, as it will detect muscle movement.
Development board: our main board will transmit the data from each of the sensors to a mobile interface via. Bluetooth. The user will be notified when the pressure sensors are not tight enough. For our purposes, the battery on the development will suffice, and we will not need additional dry cells.
The data will be transmitted to a mobile system, where it would also remind the user to wear the brace if taken off. To make sure the brace has a secure enough fit, pressure sensors will be calibrated to determine accordingly. We want to emphasize the hardware circuits that will be supplemented onto the leg brace.
We want to emphasize on the hardware circuit portion this brace contains. We have tested the temperature and pressure resistors on a breadboard by soldering them to resistors, and confirmed they work as intended by checking with a multimeter.
|41||Noise-to-Color Visualizer (NCV) Device
||Han Young Kim
Hyun Soo Kim
Often, we are very subjective about the noise level around us. When we are involved in conversation, we often ignore that the fact we are making noise that disturbs the people around us. Even with a lot of people talking, some people say its ok while some say the place is very noisy. I believe it’s just too difficult to be neutral to judge the level of noise. It would be easy to visualize the noise with a color level so that when we tell our friends about the noise level at certain place, it would give them clear image of how quiet/noisy the place is.
Our project is to design a device that visualize the noise level by classifying the noise levels into four to five different color: Red, Yellow, Green, Blue, and Purple. (Red being the loudest and purple being the quietest) By interpreting the decibel into a simple color, we can clearly see that the noise we or others are making is loud or acceptable. With this device, people cannot be selfish and subjective about the noise level because the device will tell them it’s loud so “you need to keep it down a lot more!”
What we will be using
1. Four MEMS Microphone or omnidirectional microphone
We will be using MEMS microphone to collect the noise level of the surrounding. To be accurate, we will use 4 MEMS microphone or omni-directional microphone to collect noise sample from 4 different directions in respective to the user. By taking the mean of the 4 signals, we can estimate more sense of how much decibel we are getting from omni-direction.
2. Band Pass Filter (Hardware Design)
When we think the surrounding is noisy, it indicates that the intensity of sound of human perceptible frequency is very large. Thus, we would want to implement bandpass filter, which we will be implementing through analog circuit, to sort out the frequency range between 20 Hz – 20 kHz, the human perception of hearing range. After then, we will pass this signal to the Microcontroller.
3. Microcontroller ( ATMEGA 328P)
The desired specifications of the microcontroller we would like to use are Analog-to-Digital Converter embedded and the functionality of FFT within the Microcontroller. Considering these aspect, we are thinking to use ATEMGA 328P, which enables both of the functionalities.
After getting the range of frequency to analyze, we will be implementing the following algorithm (tentatively we wrote pseudo code as below)
Switch(x = noise level)
Case1 (x >= 110 dB) return Color Red
Case2 (x > 90dB && x < 110 dB) return Color Blue’’
So on….. until it reaches
Case5 (x <= 10 dB) return Color Purple
As professor pointed out, we are going to use 5 out of 6 that LilyPad LEDs possess because one of the LEDs can be used as an indicator for whether the power is on/off. If we want to be more specific about the range of noise level, it would be good idea to use all 6 of them.
For reference, 110 is the sound that can be made by the motorcycle or chainsaw. After microcontroller decides which color to pass on, it will send to RGB LED Display. Below is the link that helps understand the real-life examples of noise level corresponding to certain decibel.
4. LED Panel
This LED Panel is used to display the color decided by Microcontroller. We are currently thinking of using LilyPad Rainbow LED which supports 6 different colors.
We were able to narrow down the option with the power supply of the device either one of these
a. 5 V Lithium Battery = Planning on Analog Design
= In this case, we would have to implement a power protection circuit for safety. The drawback would be there is a battery life span.
b. Power Supply from the wall outlet (120V) = Planning on Analog Design
= In this case, we would want to build a AC-to-DC converter for supply power to the microcontroller we would be using and LEDs as well as the microphones as corresponding voltage and currents allowed. We are preferring using this because its stable and don't need to worry about battery span.
The potential application of this device would be used to gauge the noise level of certain places as cafe, library, and places where the noise level has to be controlled. This device would help people to quickly notice the noise is going over the limit rather than the device that merely shows the numeric level of noise (dB).
|42||Monitoring System for Rotating Turbines
|For our project we are proposing a monitoring system for turbines (in airplanes, various cooling systems, etc.) or other sub systems that have mechanical components that rotate and/or oscillate with fixed RPM/frequencies
Implementation and components:
-We are going to implement this primarily using a photonic integrated system that employs a fiber coupled laser diode. The output of the fiber will couple on to an appropriate semiconductor photodetector.
-We will introduce a gap in the fiber where we can introduce an armature connected to the axis of the fan/turbine. This will allow us to mechanically pulse the laser at the frequency of the turbine.
-Alternatively, we can use a doped fiber to introduce gain inside the fiber cladding in order to account for any losses at the gap. The VCSEL in the coupler will now drive the new gain medium.
-The detector will have to once again be selected accordingly (to prevent saturation). However, instead of Q-switching a fiber laser we can pulse the output of a fiber ring amplifier should we need a more substantial laser output. This may be easier to implement.
-We will use a discriminator circuit to generate alternating electrical signals from the fluctuating detector photocurrent. A microcontroller will be used to calculate the time between zero signals (corresponding to a low Q for the fiber cavity; meaning the laser was clipped by the armature). The inverse of this time will give us the frequency of the turbine.
-> An Arduino micro-controller is most suitable to achieve this and following bullet point, as it provides the necessary complexity and flexibility required by these steps when implementing.
-We will use the microcontroller to determine if this frequency (which is constantly being calculated at every point in time while the system is operational) is held at a predetermined and programmable optimal value, or if it is falling or rising.
-If it is falling below optimal value the microcontroller will turn on a backup power supply and turn off the current one which is now losing power (we can test this by manually disconnecting the primary power source).
-In the rare case that the frequency is going above optimal (we can simulate this with a potentiometer which will raise the power supplied to the turbine), the microcontroller will perform the same function.
-We will allow for a small tolerance in the optimal RPM so that the backup isn't constantly being turned on and off for very minute and insignificant changes in RPM.
Finally, it must be said that we are using a fiber so that the controller and additional circuitry does not have to be placed near the actual turbine. This will be convenient if we are trying to implement this in a machine where the location of any kind of fan will restrict the placement of our board. Furthermore, the usage of a fiber makes the laser more controllable, gives us a stronger beam for turbines operating in inconducive atmospheres and eliminates a lot of alignment issues. Basically, the system will be modular and can be applied to existing machines without having to redesign them.
-> We have talked to Prof. Peter Dragic about this project idea and he said that he can provide us with the necessary components we need, in addition to lab space for testing, debugging, etc.
|43||Automatic Scoring System for Ticket to Ride
|We will automate the scoring process in the board game Ticket to Ride. The scoring process can be cumbersome and complex, so automation will make the game more enjoyable to the player. Instead of moving a piece around the board to keep score, an LED will indicate each player's score. Each city will have a button. Pressing two different buttons will connect those 2 cities, update your point total, and light up the spaces where your trains would go in your color if the move is valid. At the end of the game, the final score will be calculated, including the longest path bonus and any destination cards that were fulfilled. The destination cards can have NFC tags in them to be able to be scanned and automatically added to your score.|
|44||Dorm Door Locking Mechanism
|Karan Usgaonkar (usgaonk2)
Thomas Orr (tjorr2)
Mason Hoppe (bmhoppe2)
Despite the University's best efforts there are still thefts from dorm rooms because people leave their doors unlocked when they aren't there.
A project that I would like to propose is that of a new locking mechanism to help to solve the issue of dorm thefts. Currently, the biggest contributor to this problem is that people leave the doors to their rooms unlocked accidentally. To correct this problem our mechanism would lock the door whenever the door closes.
In addition, to counter the issues of accidentally leaving the room without your key and thus being locked out, we would add additional methods to unlock the door. A few ideas that we have for these would be to use a fingerprint scanner, an id card (icard) reader, and having a remote control to unlock the door. We would implement at least one additional unlocking mechanism and could require they work in tandem with each other (i.e. all of these additional methods are used together to unlock the door) or any one of these could unlock the door. The decision for this would be on the internal interface and would be used at the owner's discretion.
In order to aid in security of the door, the only things placed outside of the door would the the sensors used to unlock it and wiring sending input data to the back of the door. This is to prevent anyone from polling our hardware from the outside in order to find a way to send the correct unlock signal to break in.
Additionally, this project will not change any currently existing locking features of the door. Meaning, the door can still be unlocked and re-locked from the inside without issue and can still be opened using a key.
We expect the machinery used in this project to be battery powered and would include warning lights to indicate a low battery power. Should the power in the mechanism run out, the door will still be accessible with a key.
Current products on the market:
Currently the only similar versions of this project are permanent deadbolt replacements. Our project is made to be temporary and easily attachable/detachable.
Previous Versions of the project:
This project has been used previously in spring of 2016 especially. These projects were numbers 8, and 76. Our project is different from those previous projects because these primarily involved using your phone through a previously installed chip or some sort of web interface. We do not use either of these methods and instead focus on having the user interface attached entirely to the inside and outside of the door.
|45||RFID Anti-Theft Door Lock
Our goal is to design an RFID anti-theft door lock. People can install this lock onto the front door of their house or some other places requiring high security. To open this door, people just need to touch the sensor area with a small RFID tag. It is much more convenient than the traditional approach that requires a key to open a door.
Moreover, this lock provides a reliable anti-theft function. You can connect this lock to your phone and check the status of your lock on your phone. This lock also contains an alarm that can make earsplitting noise. If someone without a proper tag spun the doorknob for five times, or even attempted to destroy the lock, your phone would ring to notice you, and the alarm would also ring to notice surrounding people. As a result, that person may forsake the attempt.
Traditional lock has an advantage: it does not require electricity power. If you tried to open your electrical lock, but the battery had just died, that would be quite annoying. However, we have considered this problem when we design this lock. Since this lock is not portable and stays on the door, it can be made a little big to hold a big battery. Our goal is to replace the battery once a year. Also, you can check the battery information on your phone, and you will be noticed if the battery is about to die. If your house has a wall outlet closed to your front door, you can simply plug the power into the outlet so as to obviate worry about the battery.
|46||Prosthetic Control Board
| Psyonic is a local start-up that has been working on a prosthetic arm with an impressive set of features as well as being affordable. The current iteration of the main hand board is functional, but has limitations in computational power as well as scalability. In lieu of this, Psyonic wishes to switch to a production-ready chip that is an improvement on the current micro controller by utilizing a more modern architecture. During this change a few new features would be added that would improve safety, allow for easier debugging, and fix some issues present in the current implementation. The board is also slated to communicate with several other boards found in the hand. Additionally we are looking at the possibility of improving the longevity of the product with methods such as conformal coating and potting.
Replace microcontroller, change connectors, and code software to send control signals to the motor drivers
Tier 1 functions:
Add additional communication interfaces (I2C), and add temperature sensor.
Tier 2 functions:
Setup framework for communication between other boards, and improve board longevity.
Overview of proposed changes by affected area:
Teensy -> Production-ready chip (most likely ARM based, i.e. STM32 family of processors)
support new microcontroller, adding additional communication interfaces (I2C), change to more robust connector. (will need to design pcb for both main control as well as finger sensors)
Addition of a temperature sensor to provide temperature feedback to the microcontroller.
change from Arduino IDE to new toolchain. (ARM has various base libraries such as mbed and can be configured for use with eclipse to act as IDE) Lay out framework to allow communication from other boards found in other parts of the arm.
|47||Bluetooth 24-bits Headphone Adapter
Sang Baek Han
|Problem Statement and Solution:
If you look at the market nowadays, people consume their media content on the go, on the sofa, on the bed, on the floor. The cord-transmission is fading away from the industry, even charging functionality is being replaced with cordless designs such as Qi charging standard.
Currently, yet, not all media player peripherals are ready for the changes brought by portable device industry. Since currently 3.5mm audio jack has been used mostly all the time, there is a trend for manufacturers to ditch the old part and start seeking for other mains to deliver the experiences.
1) USB Type-C trend
2) Bluetooth (LE mode more preferred)
If we look into this, USB Type-C is more robust and have a max of 40Gbps bandwidth. But it is nowhere to be designed for analog peripherals. Moreover, USB Type-C direct headphones are still a fresh start; the audio quality for any existing products is not sufficiently good.
The other option is Bluetooth. Since Bluetooth 4.X, it has totally re-defined its own capability; especially with the LE mode support. With the low-power consumption mode, we can basically enable to make this device portable.
The top and mid-tier headphones are yet all analog ones. To make the device wirelessly but also with high audio quality, we will add Digital-to-analog-converter (DAC).
For the power supply, lithium battery will be used and this can run 40~50hrs with DAC enabled.
1) Long wireless range (at least 10m)
2) Low signal loss (dBm)/latency (less than 300-700ms, not delayed too much)
3) Usage of DAC and Amplifier to improve audio quality
4) Longevity battery life for streaming (low power chips)
5) Adaptability to most common peripherals (3.5mm, USB)
6) Size and weight control (lithium battery and case along with antenna material are heavy)
7) Cost efficient
8) Easy to use (more toggles and indicator)
9) PAIR UP EASILY, unlike the common Bluetooth earphones or Apple Pencil (which takes up to 3~7 seconds to link)
There will be two modules on this device; a transmitter and a receiver.
For transmitter, the inputs are the audio input port to receive audio data, the amplifier level controller to control amplifier, and mute/unmute controller. The outputs are LEDs/ink screen indicators to show the states and Bluetooth transmitter to send the audio data to receiver. Powered 5V, DC with lithium battery.
For receiver, it is similar to how transmitter is structured. But, there is audio output port to send out the audio data instead of input port.
For the audio source that outputs 24 bits audio data, we are planning to use LG V20, which supports 24bits audio data output. There is an app on the device that allows us to check if the audio data output is 24 bits. We will be having an audio data that produces 24 bits output.
For the verification process of whether receiver actually outputs 24 bits audio data, there is a Dev board for the DAC chip (PCM1794A) that we are using. This dev board can show that it outputs 24 bits audio data.
|48||CPAP Verification Device
|Obstructive Sleep Apnea is a very prevalent disease among adults in the United States,
which is caused by the obstructions of the upper airway (from nose / mouth to throat) .
Due to the paused breathing during night sleep, the patient may suffer from
daytime sleepiness and fatigue, together with significant sleep disturbance that last for decades
without identification due to the hardship to identify obvious daytime syndrome . The key to
alleviate the impact of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on patients, is to continuously open their airway
to ensure they may have a good breathing during the whole night. It is usually done by a
ventilation device that keep “pushing” air into the patient, which is called CPAP, the abbreviation
for continuous positive airway pressure . Usually, this system use ventilation to maintain a
positive pressure of around 2 centimeters of water (which is around 200 Pa) to 20 centimeters
of water (which is around 2000 Pa). Under this pressure, the patient will be able to breath
normally without obstacles.
However, the major inconvenience of CPAP system is that it lacks an accurate
monitoring system to keep an eye on its performance. This inconvenience may lead to
inconsistent air pressure in the patient’s airway, which is usually associated to uncomfortable
This inconvenience leads to our plan, which is aimed to provide a
continuous monitoring and recording tool for the pressure in the CPAP system. By continuously
monitoring and recording the air pressure data inside the air tube, we can provide a detailed
analysis for its user to monitor how their CPAP system is performing, and an immediate warning
if they need to fix their CPAP system due to the malfunctional or inconsistencies.
The overall design is based on a branch on the CPAP hose that connected to the mask
and the machine. We designed five major independent parts:
1) a power supply chip, which converts various power source into regulated voltage
for chips and equipment;
2) a sensor unit, which records the pressure information;
3) a control unit, which converts the raw sensor data into human-readable format;
4) a storage unit, which temporarily store the data for later retrieval; and
5) an output unit, which provides output onto PCs or cellphones via serial port.