Project

# Title Team Members TA Documents Sponsor
35 Bat Migration Monitor [PITCHED PROJECT]
Aidan Rafferty
Hoguer Benitez Hernandez
Romin Patel
Tianxiang Zheng design_document1.pdf
final_paper1.pdf
photo1.png
presentation1.pptx
proposal1.pdf
# Bat Migration Monitor [PITCHED PROJECT]

## Team Members:
- Aidan Rafferty (Aidanr4)
- Hoguer Benitez (Hoguerb2)
- Romin Patel (Rominmp2)

## Design Requirements:
- GPS tag that emits VHF
- VHF duration: 7-14 days
- Goal Weight: 1.5g
- Dimensions: 21 x 13 x 5 mm
- VHF range: 1 km
- Battery life: 3 days straight
- Data collection every 5-10 min periods over 6 hour timeframe
- Rechargeable
- Temperature Sensor

# Problem
The population of bats, whose presence provides pest control, pollination, and seed dispersal has been on decline due to various reasons such as WNS, habit destruction, and wind turbines(>400,00 hoary bats are killed by wind turbines annually). Due to the unawareness of their migratory path, minimum support has been provided in order to protect them. At the moment, there are VHF & Untraceable GPS tags currently available in the market, however, they both have their own downsides. The VHF tags are very labor intensive and only are beneficial when the bat is stationary. Untraceable GPS tags are unable to be retrieved which creates a lot of data loss of the paths. Additionally, both tags have a pricey dollar tag attached to both. In order to aid in bat conservation efforts, we need to learn more about the bats’ migration habits, which calls for the need of a new low-cost tracking product, such that it can improve the devices that are currently in the market in order to preserve the current population of bats.

# Solution
Our design is aimed to have low-cost VHF & GPS technology that can store the bat’s movement as well as send a signal for tracking data. This information will help us gather data for the bats’ winter-summer migration paths, and use it to prevent the further increase in bats’ casualties. For our design, it is essential to construct a device that incorporates a GPS tag integrated with VHF tracking capabilities to resolve issues that current devices have in the market. The construction of the device must ensure a weight below 1.5g and have an approximately 21x13x5 mm dimensions, such that the device would have no interference with the flight capabilities of bats.

# Solution Components
## Subsystem 1: Rechargeable Battery (Power)
The Power subsystem of the device requires us to use rechargeable batteries. We’ve looked at Lithium-ion and primary lithium cells, and we’ve decided to use Lithium-ion to meet the power density and rechargeable requirements. Due to the complexity of this project, we haven’t picked a specific battery, but due to the weight requirements, we want to stay in the range of 35-50 mAh. We have, however, picked a potential battery, but trade-offs and flexibility is still our priority here.

- Potential Battery - https://www.powerstream.com/ultra-light.htm
GM051215; 3.7 V; 50mAH; 1.2g

## Subsystem 2: Low dropout regulator
The LOD regulator will be used to bring down the voltage from the battery to the GPS and VHF. We’re going to stay away from designing our own voltage/current dividers and use the IC already in the market. Specific LOD regulator is still to be determined, however, since the battery we’re looking at will use 3.7V and the components use 3.3V, these are the specs we’ll look for.

## Subsystem 3: GPS Data Logging
For our project it is essential to have a device that is able to provide accurate position data of the bat. Beyond functionality, we also need to consider the dimensions and weight of the device as well such that it can comfortably be attached to the bat without hindering its flight capabilities. We believe that this chip would be suitable for our project as it fits within the dimension and weight constraints, while also still delivering the necessary functionality for tracking at very low power consumption. The data then would be written from the GPS module to the EEPROM chip by the microcontroller.
GPS Data Tracker - Max-M10M https://content.u-blox.com/sites/default/files/documents/MAX-M10M_DataSheet_UBX-22028884.pdf

## Subsystem 4: VHF Transmitter
The VHF transmitter system will be in the 148-152MHz band and needs to have a range of at least 1 km. The receiver used by the lab has a minimal detectable limit of -150dBm and -133dBm with the DSP using a 3 pole Yagi antenna with a gain of 7.7 dBi. Given the Wavelength of 2 meters and the incredibly small form factor requirements and omnidirectional need the antenna will be electrically small giving a predicted gain around 1.76 dBi. This means the transmitter will need to output at atleast 13 dBm to be detected by the receiver. The modulation scheme is a simple pulse of width 12ms and fundamental frequency of 1-.1 Hz. Right now we are most likely going to Use the ADF7020-1 Transceiver to accomplish the transmitter but are also continuing to work on a discrete component design and comparing designs for the Design Document. While the ADF7020-1 fits all the requirements perfectly, and has very low power draw in the off state, it takes up a rather large footprint and comes with a large amount of unnecessary features.

# Criterion For Success
In order to successfully complete this challenge, we need to be able to implement the data collection, VHF, GPS, and weight goal. The last three subsystems are vital to obtain the research data collection, and the weight is important due to the subject that we’re putting the device on, the bats. The rest of the specs would be greatly beneficial, but are not vital for the device to perform, hence we’ll categorize these as potential device enhancements.

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