# Title Team Members TA Documents Sponsor
20 Gesture-Based Turn Signaling System
Edan Elazar
Kaylan Wang
Sultan Alnuaimi
Sanjana Pingali design_document1.pdf
# Gesture-Based Turn Signaling System
# Team members:
Sultan Alnuaimi - saltana2\
Edan Elazar - eelazar\
Kaylan Wang - kaylanw4
# Problem:
Cyclists, skateboarders, and scooter riders often face challenges in signaling their intentions to drivers, especially in low-light conditions. The traditional method of using hand signals is not always visible or practical, particularly at night or during adverse weather conditions. This lack of clear communication can lead to dangerous situations on the road, as other motorists may fail to recognize the cyclist's intended maneuvers, or if an accident occurs.
# Solution:
To address this issue, we propose the development of a gesture recognition-based turn signaling system for cyclists and scooter riders. This system will utilize a combination of sensors, such as accelerometers and gyroscopes, integrated into a wearable like a jacket. Then we process the sensor data to identify specific arm gestures made by the rider and activate corresponding LED signals. For example, if the rider extends their arm straight to the left, the left turn signal is activated, or if the rider indicates a stop, then the brake light is activated, and so on. Additionally, the sensors will be able to detect when the rider has had an accident or a crash, and activate a hazard signal.
# Solution Components

## Control Unit:
We will design our PCB and microcontroller to be able to receive data from the sensors, analyze the data, and display the correct signal on the LEDs. When the person is in an accident for example, it should activate the lights to be similar to what you see in car hazard lights. The same goes to the right, left, slowdown signals.

## Power Subsystem:
We will have multiple sensors and a number of LEDs that will require energy. To make the wearable easily reusable we will use batteries that allow charging, such as a LiPo battery. We will target a battery life of 1 hour. We can place the battery in an inner pocket of the wearable , making it easy to wire it to all parts.

## Sensors Subsystem:
For the sensors, we will use an accelerometer and a gyroscope for each arm, and use the combined data from both to determine the nature of the motion. In an accident for example, the acceleration will spike a lot, which will be our indicator. To distinguish between the other signals, we will use the gyroscope to determine the angle of the motion.

## LEDs Subsystem:
We will use LED strips placed on the back and arms of the wearable to display the information. The LEDs will be arranged in a way that will make it clear to drivers and pedestrians what the rider is trying to signal.

# Criterion for Success:
- The wearable should be able to correctly detect the arm signals of the rider, and display the corresponding signal on the LEDs.
- The wearable should be able to detect when an accident/crash happens and display a hazard signal.
- The LEDs should be clearly visible to nearby drivers and pedestrians at day and night.
- The wearable should be easily charged and reusable.

Healthy Chair

Ryan Chen, Alan Tokarsky, Tod Wang

Healthy Chair

Featured Project

Team Members:

- Wang Qiuyu (qiuyuw2)

- Ryan Chen (ryanc6)

- Alan Torkarsky(alanmt2)

## Problem

The majority of the population sits for most of the day, whether it’s students doing homework or

employees working at a desk. In particular, during the Covid era where many people are either

working at home or quarantining for long periods of time, they tend to work out less and sit

longer, making it more likely for people to result in obesity, hemorrhoids, and even heart

diseases. In addition, sitting too long is detrimental to one’s bottom and urinary tract, and can

result in urinary urgency, and poor sitting posture can lead to reduced blood circulation, joint

and muscle pain, and other health-related issues.

## Solution

Our team is proposing a project to develop a healthy chair that aims at addressing the problems

mentioned above by reminding people if they have been sitting for too long, using a fan to cool

off the chair, and making people aware of their unhealthy leaning posture.

1. It uses thin film pressure sensors under the chair’s seat to detect the presence of a user,

and pressure sensors on the chair’s back to detect the leaning posture of the user.

2. It uses a temperature sensor under the chair’s seat, and if the seat’s temperature goes

beyond a set temperature threshold, a fan below will be turned on by the microcontroller.

3. It utilizes an LCD display with programmable user interface. The user is able to input the

duration of time the chair will alert the user.

4. It uses a voice module to remind the user if he or she has been sitting for too long. The

sitting time is inputted by the user and tracked by the microcontroller.

5. Utilize only a voice chip instead of the existing speech module to construct our own

voice module.

6. The "smart" chair is able to analyze the situation that the chair surface temperature

exceeds a certain temperature within 24 hours and warns the user about it.

## Solution Components

## Signal Acquisition Subsystem

The signal acquisition subsystem is composed of multiple pressure sensors and a temperature

sensor. This subsystem provides all the input signals (pressure exerted on the bottom and the

back of the chair, as well as the chair’s temperature) that go into the microcontroller. We will be

using RP-C18.3-ST thin film pressure sensors and MLX90614-DCC non-contact IR temperature


## Microcontroller Subsystem

In order to achieve seamless data transfer and have enough IO for all the sensors we will use

two ATMEGA88A-PU microcontrollers. One microcontroller is used to take the inputs and

serves as the master, and the second one controls the outputs and acts as the slave. We will

use I2C communication to let the two microcontrollers talk to each other. The microcontrollers

will also be programmed with the ch340g usb to ttl converter. They will be programmed outside

the board and placed into it to avoid over cluttering the PCB with extra circuits.

The microcontroller will be in charge of processing the data that it receives from all input

sensors: pressure and temperature. Once it determines that there is a person sitting on it we

can use the internal clock to begin tracking how long they have been sitting. The clock will also

be used to determine if the person has stood up for a break. The microcontroller will also use

the readings from the temperature sensor to determine if the chair has been overheating to turn

on the fans if necessary. A speaker will tell the user to get up and stretch for a while when they

have been sitting for too long. We will use the speech module to create speech through the

speaker to inform the user of their lengthy sitting duration.

The microcontroller will also be able to relay data about the posture to the led screen for the

user. When it’s detected that the user is leaning against the chair improperly for too long from

the thin film pressure sensors on the chair back, we will flash the corresponding LEDs to notify

the user of their unhealthy sitting posture.

## Implementation Subsystem

The implementation subsystem can be further broken down into three modules: the fan module,

the speech module, and the LCD module. This subsystem includes all the outputs controlled by

the microcontroller. We will be using a MF40100V2-1000U-A99 fan for the fan module,

ISD4002-240PY voice record chip for the speech module, and Adafruit 1.54" 240x240 Wide

Angle TFT LCD Display with MicroSD - ST7789 LCD display for the OLED.

## Power Subsystem

The power subsystem converts 120V AC voltage to a lower DC voltage. Since most of the input

and output sensors, as well as the ATMEGA88A-PU microcontroller operate under a DC voltage

of around or less than 5V, we will be implementing the power subsystem that can switch

between a battery and normal power from the wall.

## Criteria for Success

-The thin film pressure sensors on the bottom of the chair are able to detect the pressure of a

human sitting on the chair

-The temperature sensor is able to detect an increase in temperature and turns the fan as

temperature goes beyond our set threshold temperature. After the temperature decreases

below the threshold, the fan is able to be turned off by the microcontroller

-The thin film pressure sensors on the back of the chair are able to detect unhealthy sitting


-The outputs of the implementation subsystem including the speech, fan, and LCD modules are

able to function as described above and inform the user correctly

## Envision of Final Demo

Our final demo of the healthy chair project is an office chair with grids. The office chair’s back

holds several other pressure sensors to detect the person’s leaning posture. The pressure and

temperature sensors are located under the office chair. After receiving input time from the user,

the healthy chair is able to warn the user if he has been sitting for too long by alerting him from

the speech module. The fan below the chair’s seat is able to turn on after the chair seat’s

temperature goes beyond a set threshold temperature. The LCD displays which sensors are

activated and it also receives the user’s time input.

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