# Title Team Members TA Documents Sponsor
Jasmehar Kochhar
Sanjivani Sharma
Will Salazar
Nithin Balaji Shanthini Praveena Purushothaman design_document3.pdf
Team Members:
- Jasmehar Kochhar (kochhar4)
- Sanjivani Sharma (sharma74)
- William Salazar (wds3)

# Problem

Motorcycle riders account for 14% of all traffic fatalities, despite the fact only 3% of all registered vehicles are motorcycles, and “The number of motorcyclist fatalities in 2021 increased by 8 percent from 2020, from 5,506 to 5,932.”[](url) According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) of the United States Department of Transportation, “More than other vehicle drivers, motorcyclists must remain visible at all times, and anticipate what might happen.” We want to address this safety problem. Lane splitting is a common practice endorsed by American Motorcyclist Association, wherein a motorcycle’s narrow width can allow it to pass between lanes of stopped or slow-moving cars on roadways where the lanes are wide enough to offer an adequate gap.

We believe to address all of the above, visibility to other vehicles, aiding lane splitting and reducing fatality, it is essential to remove ambiguity about the motorcyclist’s path and make turn signals and braking more visible.

# Solution
We propose to solve the issues outlined above by incorporating LED indicators on a helmet for braking and turning. This will make riders a lot more visible than traditional turn signals on motorcycles that are fitted with those.

# Solution Components
For testing this project, we will be using the motorcycle and helmet kindly being provided to us by Eric Sylvester, the Student Relations Officer of the Illini Motorcycle Club. We are working with a 2013 Kawasaki ZX-6R.

## Subsystem 1: Light Sensor subsystem
Light Sensor: Light-to-Digital Sensor TSL2561
Microcontroller: ESP32
External Pull-up resistors

The TSL2561 will communicate via I2C (multi-master, multi-slave) bus with ESP32, and will allow us to read the light intensity data from the turn signal. This will be affixed to our PCB in the motorcycle itself (can be accommodated under the seat discreetly).

## Subsystem 2: Bluetooth Subsystem - Helmet & Motorcycle Communication

The ESP32 is also used for its Bluetooth communication capabilities, which eliminates the need for an additional Bluetooth module. We plan to use BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) for keeping our power usage efficient. It will be used both as a transmitter and a receiver. One will be affixed to our main circuit, and the other will be fixed to the helmet to transmit light sensor data.

## Subsystem 3: Helmet Lighting Subsystem

- The Helmet lighting Subsystem will be connected to ESP32 connected in the helmet which would be acting as a receiver from the main circuit connected to the motorcycle. It will turn on the LEDs present in the helmet.

- The Turn Signal LEDs will be on the upper side of the helmet so that it doesn't obstruct the peripheral view of the rider by being too bright. Something that we kept in mind is that the majority of road accidents relating to lights on the motorcycle are due to left turns, so we made sure that the LED would be seen from the front as well. The brake light on the other hand only needs to be seen from the back

- The helmet will be a bigger size than normal and will have extra padding so that the power system and bluetooth system are not in direct contact with the rider's head white still being a good fit.

- LEDs: Red and amber LEDs to be affixed to the helmet to be compliant with Illinois law. To avoid compromising with the structural integrity of the helmet, we will be doing it using strong adhesive/velcro strips.

## Subsystem 4: Power Management Subsystem

- For the components connected to the motorcycle they will be connected to the Fuel Injector Output Voltage which only supplies power when the motorcycle is on, so the system should not drain the power when the motorcycle is not in use. (For simplicity purposes initially we will be using a separate battery pack for the system connected to the motorcycle and this may be a stretch goal.)

- The rechargeable batteries will be present inside the helmet to power up the ESP and the LEDs.

- LM7805 Voltage Regulator - step down the voltage from the battery to LEDs

- Rechargeable Lithium Ion Battery - allows recharging of the helmet.

- Battery Managing IC TI BQ76930 - Monitor overcharging of the battery as a safety mechanism.

- nMOS power switch - Control power to our LEDs.

- Due to the possibility of the battery heating up and to maintain they safety of the helmet the battery pack will be in cased in flame retardant fiberglass bag [](url) that would be stitched up to fit the battery pack.

# Criterion For Success
- When the motorcycle’s right turn signal illuminates and blinks, the helmet's right LED should illuminate and blink. The same relationship should apply to the left LED.

- When the motorcycle applies its brakes and its brake lights illuminate, the helmet’s brake light should illuminate. When the brakes are released, the LED should turn off.

- When the turn signal is turned off, the LED turn signals on the helmet should turn off. When the brake is not activated, the brake LED should turn off.

- Latency for the helmet LED lighting up, especially the brake, should be very low, ideally as low as possible to communicate in real time precisely the moment when brakes have been applied.

- The safety measures and pre-existing performance of the motorcycle are not compromised while executing the project or upon completion.

## Proposal for Expansion

Only 11 US[](url) states require front turn signals, and a lot of riders make do without them, instead using only hand gestures. This is even more common in other countries of the world [in this [](url) blog, this gentleman outlines hand signals all motorcyclists should know for their safety in lieu of turn signals]. For motorcycles that do not come equipped with their own turn signals, we propose to incorporate a simple indicator type set-up, similar to cars, where you can affix a lever/switch to signal your turn intention, and have it communicated via Bluetooth to the above outlined helmet-LED display. This would be modular in design and easy to add to an existing motorcycle as a part of our signaling system.

This would require the addition of a Turn Signal Activation Subsystem as follows:

## Bonus Subsystem 5: Turn Signal Activation Subsystem

Button on handlebar: The buttons on respective handlebars can be added to signal whether the rider wants to turn left or right.

Our PCB set up will receive signals from buttons about the rider's intention to turn. It will also control communication with the helmet LEDs using Bluetooth as outlined in Subsystem 2.

Subsystem 3 remains the same to display the turn signals.

Subsystem 4 remains the same to supply power.


Resonant Cavity Field Profiler

Salaj Ganesh, Max Goin, Furkan Yazici

Resonant Cavity Field Profiler

Featured Project

# Team Members:

- Max Goin (jgoin2)

- Furkan Yazici (fyazici2)

- Salaj Ganesh (salajg2)

# Problem

We are interested in completing the project proposal submitted by Starfire for designing a device to tune Resonant Cavity Particle Accelerators. We are working with Tom Houlahan, the engineer responsible for the project, and have met with him to discuss the project already.

Resonant Cavity Particle Accelerators require fine control and characterization of their electric field to function correctly. This can be accomplished by pulling a metal bead through the cavities displacing empty volume occupied by the field, resulting in measurable changes to its operation. This is typically done manually, which is very time-consuming (can take up to 2 days).

# Solution

We intend on massively speeding up this process by designing an apparatus to automate the process using a microcontroller and stepper motor driver. This device will move the bead through all 4 cavities of the accelerator while simultaneously making measurements to estimate the current field conditions in response to the bead. This will help technicians properly tune the cavities to obtain optimum performance.

# Solution Components

## MCU:

STM32Fxxx (depending on availability)

Supplies drive signals to a stepper motor to step the metal bead through the 4 quadrants of the RF cavity. Controls a front panel to indicate the current state of the system. Communicates to an external computer to allow the user to set operating conditions and to log position and field intensity data for further analysis.

An MCU with a decent onboard ADC and DAC would be preferred to keep design complexity minimum. Otherwise, high MIPS performance isn’t critical.

## Frequency-Lock Circuitry:

Maintains a drive frequency that is equal to the resonant frequency. A series of op-amps will filter and form a control loop from output signals from the RF front end before sampling by the ADCs. 2 Op-Amps will be required for this task with no specific performance requirements.

## AC/DC Conversion & Regulation:

Takes an AC voltage(120V, 60Hz) from the wall and supplies a stable DC voltage to power MCU and motor driver. Ripple output must meet minimum specifications as stated in the selected MCU datasheet.

## Stepper Drive:

IC to control a stepper motor. There are many options available, for example, a Trinamic TMC2100. Any stepper driver with a decent resolution will work just fine. The stepper motor will not experience large loading, so the part choice can be very flexible.


Samples feedback signals from the RF front end and outputs the digital signal to MCU. This component may also be built into the MCU.

## Front Panel Indicator:

Displays the system's current state, most likely a couple of LEDs indicating progress/completion of tuning.

## USB Interface:

Establishes communication between the MCU and computer. This component may also be built into the MCU.

## Software:

Logs the data gathered by the MCU for future use over the USB connection. The position of the metal ball and phase shift will be recorded for analysis.

## Test Bed:

We will have a small (~ 1 foot) proof of concept accelerator for the purposes of testing. It will be supplied by Starfire with the required hardware for testing. This can be left in the lab for us to use as needed. The final demonstration will be with a full-size accelerator.

# Criterion For Success:

- Demonstrate successful field characterization within the resonant cavities on a full-sized accelerator.

- Data will be logged on a PC for later use.

- Characterization completion will be faster than current methods.

- The device would not need any input from an operator until completion.

Project Videos