Physics 280: Documents




Viewing Documents on the Secure Server

Note: Some of the documents for this course are accessible only by logging into a secure server. When prompted, students enrolled in (and staff associated with) the course should log in using their UIUC NetID and their NetID password (this is the same id and password used to access the U of I Direct registration system, CITES computers, and the CITES dial-up system). If you are enrolled in the course and are having trouble logging in, send email to After you are done, you should Log Out.

History of Nuclear Weapons

Nuclear History at the National Security Archive
The U.S. Nuclear Weapons Cost Study Project

Nuclear Weapons

The OTA Report: Technologies Underlying Weapons of Mass Destruction
The original is available at
Local copies are available here:

Missions for Nuclear Weapons after the Cold War (Federation of American Scientists)
NuclearFiles.Org A Project of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation

Atomic Energy for Military Purposes, by Henry DeWolf Smyth, 1945 (this is a classic book on nuclear weapons from the Manhattan Project)

Development of Thermonuclear Weapons: Race for the Superbomb []
Nuclear Weapons []
The Safety and Security of Russia's Nuclear Arsenal A PBS Frontline Report, 1999
A More Effective Approach to US Security by Frederick Lamb
Managing The Atom Project []
  Belfer Center for Science and International Studies
John F Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University
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Nuclear Weapon Effects

Radiation Emergency Preparedness and Response [CDC]
Glossary of Radiological Terms [CDC]
The Day After Midnight: The Effects of Nuclear War (Secure Server)
NuclearTerror.Org The web site associated with the text Nuclear Terrorism by Graham Allison.
The Effects of Nuclear Weapons, by Samuel Glasstone and Philip J. Dolan (this is the classic US government reference)
Nuclear Weapon Effects, Federation of American Scientists
The Effects of Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear War, by Gregory Walker
The Effects of Nuclear War, Office of Technology Assessment, U.S. Congress (this is the full version of the report excerpted for the course)
Nuclear Weapon Effects Brought Home []
City on Fire, by Lynn Eden, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Jan Feb 2004 (Secure)
Video of a Blast Wave (Quicktime movie)
Bunker Buster Movie Prepared by the Federation of American Scientists
FAS Nuclear Weapon Effects Calculator
FAS Fallout Calculator
Korea Atomic Energy Research Institue (KAERI) Nuclide Data


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Radiological Dispersal Devices (Dirty Bombs)

Dirty Bomb-transcript, BBC Report, 2003
"Dirty Bombs" and Their Effects A PBS Nova Report, 2003
Terrorism Questions and Answers: Dirty Bombs Council on Foreign Relations
Dirty Bombs : Response to a Threat FAS Public Interest Report March/April 2002, Vol. 55, No. 2
Commercial Radioactive Sources: Surveying the Security Risks
  Charles D. Ferguson, Tahseen Kazi and Judith Perera
CNS Occasional Papers: #11, Jan 2003
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Chemical And Biological Weapons

Terrorist Motivations for Chemical and Biological Weapons Use: Placing the Threat in Context (3/28/2003)
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Nuclear Proliferation

Securing nuclear materials, 2011
U.S. Says Banned Nuclear Technology Went to Pakistan and India, NYT, April 9, 2005 (Secure)
Fissile material: Stockpiles still growing, Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, Nov Dec 2004 (Secure)
Laser enrichment: Separation anxiety, Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, Mar Apr 2005 (Secure)
Beyond the NPT: A Nuclear-Weapon-Free World
All Spun Up: Tutorial On Gas Centrifuges' Role in Proliferation, Federation of American Scientists
Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, UN.Org
NPT RevCon 2005: What to Know, Center for Defense Information
2005 Campaign to Strengthen the NPT, Arms Control Association
Nonproliferation at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Curbing Nuclear Proliferation in the Middle East, by Robert J.Einhorn ACT 3/04
Kazakhstan Signs IAEA Additional Protocol, ACT 3/04
Bush Outlines Proposals to Stem Proliferation, by Wade Boese ACT 3/04
Nukes 'R' Us, Gary Milhollin and Kelly Motz NYT 3/4/2004 (Secure)
U.S. Lags in Recovering Fuel Suitable for Nuclear Arms, Joel Brinkley and William J. Broad NYT 3/7/2004 (Secure)
Bombs, Reprocessing, and Reactor Grade Plutonium, Gerald E. Marsh and George S. Stanford, Physics and Society, April 2006
Nuclear Proliferation Status, 2006, Joseph Cirincione, Physics and Society, July 2006
Monitoring Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear-Explosive Materials: An Assessment of Methods and Capabilities, Steve Fetter and Ben Rusek, Physics and Society, July 2006
Re: "Monitoring Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear Explosive Materials", Jim Fuller, Physics and Society, July 2006
The List: The Next Nuclear States, Foreign Policy, Oct 2006
"U.S.-Russia Strategic Framework Declaration", Carnegie Endowment, April 2008
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Missiles and UAVs

Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles, 2012
The Issue of Missiles in All its Aspects Report of the Secretary-General of the UN
Threat of Terrorist Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Technical Aspects by Eugene Miasnikov
Encyclopedia Astronautica
UNIDIR Disarmament Forum: Missile Control?
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Phases of Ballistic Missile Flight

The phases of flight of a ballistic missile are described in Chapter 5: The Proliferation of Delivery Systems of the OTA Report on Technologies of Weapons of Mass Destruction (see page 211), which was assigned as required reading at the beginning of the term. You can find this report online by Googling "Technologies Underlying Weapons of Mass Destruction", which returns the report at
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Ballistic missile threat to the U.S.

Excerpts from the President's Summary of National Intelligence Estimate 95-19 (NIE 95-19): Emerging Missile Threats to North America During the Next 15 Years (11/95)
Gates Panel Review of NIE 95-19: Emerging Missile Threats to North America During the Next 15 Years Central Intelligence Agency (12/23/96)
Unclassified Summary of the Report of the Committee to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States (07/15/98) (the "Rumsfeld Commission" Report)
Foreign Missile Developments and the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States Through 2015 (09/99) Unclassified Summary of a National Intelligence Estimate
National Security Report: Background and Perspective on Important National Security and Defense Policy Issues (09/00) (Written and Produced by House Armed Services Committee Chairman)
The Ballistic Missile Threat Joseph Cirincione (06/18/01)
Missile Wars (map) Frontline
The Real Terrorist Missile Threat, and What can be Done About It Robert Sherman (FAS Public Interest Report (2003) Vol. 56 #3
Proliferation of Delivery Systems Chapter 5 of OTA Report on Technologies Underlying the Weapons of Mass Destruction
The Impact of Missile Threats on the Reliability of U.S. Oversea Bases: A Framework for Analysis
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Nuclear Arsenals

Country Profiles, NTI.Org
Global Nuclear Powers, BBC News UK Edition

US Nuclear Weapons

U.S. strategic nuclear forces, 2012
U.S. tactical nuclear forces, 2011
U.S. nuclear weapons and war plans, 2012
U.S. and Soviet/Russian nonstrategic nuclear forces, 2012
U.S. nuclear forces, 2005, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, NRDC, Jan Feb 2005 (Secure)
Current U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces As of January 31, 2003, ACA Fact Sheet, 9/03
Nuclear Weapons Initiatives: Low Yield R & D, Advanced Concepts, Earth Penetrators, Test Readiness, CRS Report for Congress 12/11/03
Los Alamos Science Number 28,2003
Will New Nuclear Weapons Make Us More Secure by Henry Kelly and Ivan Oelrich
Nuclear Weapons: The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program, CRS Report For Congress
Earth Penetrating Nuclear Warheads against Deep Targets: Concepts, Countermeasures, and Consequences, Federation of American Scientists
Missions for Nuclear Weapons after the Cold War, Federation of American Scientists
To Save Money, Look to Nukes, Los Angeles Times, 11/11
Searching for Cuts, Congress Spars Over Nuclear Weapons, The Atlantic
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British Nuclear Weapons

British Nuclear Forces, 2011
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Russian Nuclear Weapons

Russian Nuclear Forces, 2011
U.S. and Soviet/Russian nonstrategic nuclear forces, 2012
Current Strategic Nuclear Forces of the Former Soviet Union, ACA Fact Sheet 12/02
Putin Boasts About Russian Military Capabilities by Wade Boese, ACT 3/04
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Chinese Nuclear Weapons

China's Nuclear Policy, INESAP
Chinese Nuclear Forces, 2011

Indian Nuclear Weapons

India's nuclear forces, 2010

Iranian Nuclear Weapons Programs

Information on Iran's nuclear program (2011), FAS
Recent Chronology of Iranian Nuclear Activties, NTI Fact Sheet
IAEA says Iran Failed to Disclose Key Nuclear Activities, Paul Kerr, ACT 3/04
Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Report by the Governor General, IAEA 6/6/2003
Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Report by the Governor General, IAEA 11/10/2003
Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Report by the Governor General, IAEA 2/24/2004
U.N. Agency Says Iran Data Points to A-Bomb Work, New York Times, 11/8/11
The Nuclear Options, Foreign Policy, 11/11/11
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Iraqi Nuclear Weapons Programs

Spies, Lies, and Weapons: What Went Wrong by Kenneth M. Pollack, The Atlantic Monthly | January/February 2004
Weapons of Misperception Atlantic Unbound | January 13, 2004 (Interview of Kenneth M. Pollak)
WMD in Iraq: Evidence and Implications Joseph Cirincione, Jessica T. Mathews, George Perkovich (Carnegie Report) Ex-Inspector Says C.I.A. Missed Disarray in Iraqi Arms Program, James Risen, NYT 1/26/04; NYT Article on Kay Report (Secure)
Contrasting Views on Iraq's WMD, Paul Kerr (ACT 3/04)
Iraqi Weapons of Mass Destruction- Intellegence and Assessments Intellegence and Security Committee,UK (9/9/03)
Arms Control Today Interview with David Kay on Iraq, Inspections and Absence of Prohibited Weapons One Year After U.S. Invasion of Iraq (ACT 3/15/2004)
Rumsfeld Memo: US Ignorant About Iraqi Weapon Programs
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Israeli Nuclear Weapons

North Korean Nuclear Weapons Programs

Special Report on the North Korean Nuclear Weapons Statement
No Good Choices: The Implications of a Nuclear North Korea
U.S. Expert Unconvinced N. Korea Can Make Nuclear Bomb Reuters (NYT 1/21/04) (Secure)
Visit to the Yongbyon Nuclear Scientific Research Center in North Korea, Siegfried S. Hecker (Senate Committee on Foreign Relations Hearing) (Secure)
U.S. Delegation Visits North Korea Questions Remaining Over Pyongyang's Nuclear Claims Paul Kerr (ACT 3/04) North Korea's Nuclear Weapons: How Soon An Arsenal Sharon A. Squassoni (CRS Report for Congress 2/2/2004)
Off Target Michael Levi (The New Republic 3/24/03)
U.S. Widens View of Pakistan Link to Korean Arms David E. Sanger (NYT 3/14/2004) (Secure)


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Pakistani Nuclear Weapons

Pakistan's nuclear forces, 2011
Pakistan�s nuclear weapons: Proliferation and security issues, 2011
Key Pakistani is Said to Admit Atom Transfers David Rodhe and David E. Sanger (NYT 2/2/04) (Secure)
Warhead Blueprints Link Libya Project to Pakistani Figure William J. Broad and David E. Sanger (NYT 2/4/2004) (Secure)
Malaysia Factory Counters Tenet's Nuclear Charges The Associated Press (NYT 2/6/2004) (Secure)
Nuclear Expert Receives Pardon From Musharraf David Rohde (NYT 2/6/2004) (Secure)
Libya's A Bomb Blueprints Reveal New Tie to Pakistani William J. Broad (NYT 2/9/2004) (Secure)
Father of the Pakistani Bomb Sold Nuclear Secrets Karen Yourish and Delano D'Souza (ACT 3/04)
Nuclear Negligence, National Journal Member, 11/9/11
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Libyan Nuclear Weapons Programs

Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement of the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Report by the Governor General IAEA (2/20/2004)

Efforts to Defend Against Nuclear Attacks

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Missile Defense

Ballistic Missile Defense and Offensive Arms Reductions: A Review of the Historical Record, 2010
A Simple Model for Calculating Ballistic Missile Defense Effectiveness
Alternatives for Boost-Phase Missile Defense
Missile Defense Fails Test; System Remains Grounded, Arms Control Association
U.S. Missile Defense Programs at a Glance, Arms Control Association
Technical Aspects of Ballistic Missile Defense Federation of American Scientists
Boost Phase Intercept Sysems for National Missile Defense - APS Study
Department of Defense FY06 Budget Request for Missile Defense
The Basics: Making Sense of Missile Defence (PBS-Frontline)
A Defense that Will Not Defend, by Richard L. Garwin - Summer 2000
Missile Defense Agency
A Call to Deploy, by Stephen J. Hadley, The Washington Quarterly, Summer 2000
The Politics: How did We Get Here?, by Michael Nacht, The Washington Quarterly, Summer 2000
The Administration's Approach, by Walter B. Slocombe, The Washington Quarterly, Summer 2000
Missile Defense, Union of Concerned Scientists
Contracts for Mini Vehicles Awarded, Arms Control Association, Mar 2004
Missile Defense Funding Request Tops $10 Billion, Wade Boese, Arms Control Association, Mar 2004
Top Pentagon Oficial Says Missile Defence Performance Questionable Without More Tests, Wade Boese, Arms Control Association, Mar 2004
2004 Congressional Hearings
National Security Presidential Directive 23
Missile Defence: Additional Knowledge Needed in Developing System for Intercepting Long-Range Missiles (GAO 8/2003)
Truck Scanners To Coming To All Port Terminals, David E. Sanger, NYT, 3/14/2004 (Secure)
Technical Realities: An Analysis of the 2004 Deployment of the US National Missile Defence System
  Lisbeth Gronlund, David C. Wright, George N. Lewis and Phillip E. Coyle III
Union of Concerned Scientists (May 2004)
Executive Summary
Technical Realities: An Analysis of the 2004 Deployment of the US National Missile Defence System
  Lisbeth Gronlund, David C. Wright, George N. Lewis and Phillip E. Coyle III
Union of Concerned Scientists (May 2004)
Full Report
The Final Frontier: Missile Defence in Space?, Bruno Gruselle, UNIDIR, Jan 2007
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Countering Radiological Effects

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Nuclear Arms Control

Nuclear Arms Control: Arms Control Treaties

The 1994 U.S.-North Korean Agreed Framework, Arms Control Association
Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, Arms Control Association
Biological Weapons Convention, Arms Control Association
Chemical Weapons Convention, Arms Control Association
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), US Dept. of State
Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Signatories/Ratifiers, Bureau of Arms Control Factsheet (11/15/2000)
Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, Arms Control Association
International Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation, Arms Control Association
Latin America Nuclear Weapons Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Tlatelolco), Arms Control Association
Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), Arms Control Association
Missile Technology Control Regime, Arms Control Association
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Arms Control Association
Outer Space Treaty, Arms Control Association
Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (PNET), Arms Control Association
Physical Protection of Nuclear Material Convention, International Atomic Energy Agency
Seabed Arms Control Treaty, Arms Control Association
South Pacific Nuclear Weapons Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Rarotonga), Arms Control Association
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I) (narrative), Arms Control Association
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II), Arms Control Association
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I), US Dept. of State
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty II (START II), US Dept. of State
Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORT), Arms Control Association
Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT), Arms Control Association
New START Protocol and Text
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Nuclear Arms Control: Additional Documents

Executive Summary of the National Academy of Sciences Report: "The Future of US Nuclear Weapons Policy, Arms Control Association
Findings and Recommendations Concerning the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, Arms Control Association
Protocol To The Treaty Between The United States Of America And The Russian Federation On Further Reduction And Limitation Of Strategic Offensive Arms Of January 3, 1993, Arms Control Association
Tackling the Nuclear Dilemma: An Interview With IAEA Director-General Mohamed ElBaradei, Arms Control Association
Bombs, Carrots, and Sticks: The Use of Incentives and Sanctions, Arms Control Association
Universal Compliance: A Strategy for Nuclear Security, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
U.S.-Soviet/Russian Nuclear Arms Control, ACA Fact Sheet, 6/02
List of Arms Control Treaties, ACA Treaties Menu
Technical Issues Related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 2002
  Committee on Technical Issues Related to the Ratification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test ban Treaty
National Academy of Sciences
National Academy Press, Washington D.C.
The Outer Space Treaty at a Glance, ACA Fact Sheet, 9/03
The Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty At a Glance, ACA Fact Sheet, 1/03
The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty at a Glance, ACA Fact Sheet, 2/03
Start I at a Glance (ACA Fact Sheet)
Brief Chronology of START II (ACA Fact Sheet)
START II and Its Extension Protocol At a Glance (ACA Fact Sheet, 1/03)
The START III Framework At a Glance (ACA Fact Sheet, 1/03)
The 1997 START/ABM Package At a Glance (ACA Fact Sheet, 1/03)
An Inherent Lesson in Arms Control, Stephen Cambone, The Washington Quarterly, Spring 2000
The Road Ahead for Arms Control, Brad Roberts, The Washington Quarterly, Spring 2000
Is Arms Control Dead?, Harold Brown, The Washington Quarterly, Spring 2000
The Demise of Arms Control?, James Schlesinger, The Washington Quarterly, Spring 2000
Strengthening Arms Control, Thomas Graham, The Washington Quarterly, Spring 2000
Renovating Arms Control through Reassurance, John Steinbruner - Spring 2000
U.S.- Russian Plan to Destroy Atom-Arms Plutonium Is Delayed, Matthew L. Wald, NYT 2/9/04 (Secure)
U.S.-Russian Arms Reduction Body Yet to Meet, Arms Control Association, 3/04
China Seeks to Join Nuclear, Missile Control Groups, Paul Kerr and Wade Boese, Arms Control Association, 3/04
25 Years After Reykjavik: What We Now Know, Huffington Post, 10/11
Progress Since the 2010 Washington Nuclear Security Summit, James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies
Securing Nuclear Materials: The 2010 Summit and Issues for Congress, Congressional Research Service, 10/11
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Nongovernmental Organizations

Natural Resource Defense Council
International Network of Engineers and Scientists Against Proliferation
Arms Control Association
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Center for Defense Information
Center for Nonproliferation Studies
Council for a Livable World
Council on Foreign Relations
The Federation of American Scientists
Global Security.Org
Nuclear Energy Institute
Nuclear Threat Initiative
Union of Concerned Scientists
Forum on Physics and Society
The International Atomic Energy Agency
The Council on Foreign Relations
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US and International Agencies and Labs

The White House Foreign Policy
US Department of Energy
Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Los Alamos National Laboratory
United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR)
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International Security

Managing a Nuclear Transition, Sam Nunn, The Washington Quarterly, Winter 2000
Physics Today - a wealth of online information relating to arms control and security
Belfer Centre for Science and International Affairs
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Can Terrorists Build Nuclear Weapons? Nuclear Control Institute (Secure Server)

Security Classification Issues

Secrecy News From the FAS Project on Government Secrecy Vol. 2003, Issue No. 33 (4/16/2003)

Keeping Presidents in the Nuclear Dark Bruce G. Blair (CDI President)

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Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

Carnegie Endowment

The Carnegie Endowment web site has a wealth of information on various topics that would be of interest. It has regular updates on the nuclear status of various countries, regional reports, upcoming events in the arms control business, and various other interesting topics. It has links to host of resources and will be useful to students for writing a term paper.


CNN article on US-Norwegian Rocket launch coming up (a similar rocket in 1995 spooked the Russians into thinking they were under a ballistic missile attack).
CNN article on info war.
Washington Post article on Russian Nuclear Scientists.
ACDIS here at UIUC
U.S. State Department
U.S. Navy
Samachar, an Indian news collection service

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Related Links

The Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction
Bush Administration's First Memo on al-Qaeda Declassified
Overview of Fiscal Year 2006 Department of Energy Budget Request
FY04 Director of Operational Test and Evaluation (DOT&E) Report
Space Weapons Spending in the Fiscal Year 2006 President's Request: A Preliminary Assessment
Analysis of Space Weapons
Crimes of War Project
"Meeting with Members of the Council on Foreign Relations," President of Russia, November 2008


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Older Links

Radiation Effects Research Foundation []
Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and Nuclear Weapons - Links
A-Bomb WWW Museum
University of Missouri Nuclear Reactor
Enola Gay exhibit at the Smithsonian
U.S. Nuclear Policy: "Negative Security Assurances" (ACA Fact Sheet, 3/02)
New Nuclear Policies, New Weapons, New Dangers Christine Kucia and Daryl Kimball ACA Issue Brief April 28, 2003
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