NPRE 435: Radiological Imaging

 

Fall, 2017

 

Course Description

Techniques to generate ionizing radiation useful in the imaging of solids and medical imaging. Theory and applications of biological and medical imaging modalities that use ionizing radiation: X-ray diagnostic methods such as plain film and digital, computer axial tomography (CAT); radionuclide imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and gamma cameras. Theory and applications of materials imaging, including x-ray, electron, and neutron diffraction. Course Information: 3 undergraduate hours. 3 graduate hours. Prerequisite: NPRE 446.

 

Basic Contents

§  Lab tour:  We will have 2 lab tours during the semester to (1) the Molecular Imaging Center at the Biomedical Imaging Center (BIC) of the Beckman Institute, and (2) the Microscopic Suite at the Beckman Institute.

§  Term project: (1) Paper review project and (2) X-ray CT data acquisition and image reconstruction.

§   Quizzes and Exams: Two major exams and a few quizzes.

§    

 

Teaching Staff and Office Hours

Instructor: Ling-Jian Meng, PhD. E-mail: ljmeng@illinois.edu; Office: 111E Talbot Lab; Tel: 217-3337710.

Office hours: 3-5pm on Friday. Please feel free to come to my office during regular hours, or to send me email to make appointments.

 

 

Lecture Time and Place

      MWF 2:00pm-2:50pm; 204 Transportation Building.

 

 

Prerequisites

Unofficially: radiation interactions, basic principles of radiation detectors, probability and random variables complex numbers, linear algebra, Matlab.

 

Textbook

Required textbooks

      [1] Medical Imaging Signals and Systems (2nd Edition), J. Prince and J. M. Links, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2012. Chapter 1-3, Chapter 4-6.

 

      Reference

      [2] Foundations of Medical Imaging, Z. H. Cho, John Wiley & Sons, 1993.

      [3] Radiation Detection and Measurements, Third Edition, G. F. Knoll, John Wiley & Sons, 1999.

 

Course Website

https://courses.engr.illinois.edu/npre435/

 

 

Lecture Notes (will be posted after each lecture)

Introduction to Radiological Imaging. (08/28 –  09/01)

 

Chapter 1: A (Very) Brief Introduction to Radiation Sources and Radiation Interactions

§  A brief introduction to the radiation sources commonly used in radiological imaging: (09/06 – 09/11) Reading Material: Chapters 1 in Ref. book [3].

§  Radiation Interactions: (09/13, 09/15) Reading Material: Chapters 2 in Ref. book [3].

 

 

Chapter 2: Mathematical Preliminaries for Image Processing

§  Signals and systems: (09/18, 09/20) Reading Material: Chapters 2 in Ref. book [1].

§  Fourier transform basics, and sampling theory: (09/20, 09/22) Reading Material: Chapters 2 in Ref. book [1] and Chapters 2 in Ref. book [2].

§  Analytical Image Reconstruction Methods (1): Radon Transform & Central Slice Theorem: Reading: Chapter 3 in Ref. book [1]. Chapter 6 (Page 192-207) in Ref. book [2]

§  Analytical Image Reconstruction Methods (2): Back-projection based reconstruction methods:

§   A brief introduction to Matlab.

§  Iterative Image Reconstruction Methods: please also see attached paper by Shepp and Vardi on MLEM.

§  Image Quality: Reading Material: Chapters 3 in Ref. book [2].

                                                                                                                                                                                      

Chapter 3: X-ray Radiography and Computed Tomography

§  X-Ray Physics (1): X-ray generation.  Reading Material: Chapters 4 & 5 in Ref. book [2]

§  X-Ray Physics (2): X-ray interaction, attenuation and practical considerations. Reading Material: Chapters 4 & 5 in Ref. book [2]

§  X-Ray Physics (3): X-ray detectors. Reading Material: Chapters 4 & 5 in Ref. book [2]

§  (Not covered in lecture) Planar X-Ray Image Formation: Reading Material: Chapters 5 in Ref. book [2]. Note that the notations used in lecture notes may be different from those used in the text book.

§  (Not covered in lecture) SNR of X-Ray Images: Reading Material: Chapters 5 in Ref. book [2].

§  X-Ray CT: Image formation, image quality: Reading Material: Chapters 6 in Ref. book [2].

 

 

Chapter 4: Emission Tomography and Related Imaging Techniques

§  Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) (1): principle, radio-nuclides and Imaging systems: Reading Material: Chapters 7 & 8 in Ref. book [2].

§  Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (2): SPECT systems, Image Formation, Design Considerations and Recent Advances: Reading Material: Chapters 7 & 8 in Ref. book [2].

§  Positron Emission Tomography (PET): Basic Principle, Instrumentations, Design Considerations and Clinical Uses: Additional Reading Material: Chapters 9 in Ref. book [2].

 

 

Chapter 5: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

§  Basic Physics of NMR (1): Reading Material: Chapters 12 in Ref. book [2].

§  Basic Physics of NMR (2): Reading Material: Chapters 12 in Ref. book [2].

§  MRI Basic (1): Reading Material: Chapters 13 in Ref. book [2].

§  MRI Basic (2): Reading Material: Chapters 13 in Ref. book [2].

§  MRI Basic (3): Reading Material: Chapters 13 in Ref. book [2].

 

Homeworks (will be posted after each Monday’s lecture) 

 

Homework 1. Due at 5pm om Sept. 25, 2017. Solutions.

Homework 2. Due at 5pm om Oct. 4, 2017. Solutions.

Homework 3. Due at 5pm om Oct. 16, 2017.

Homework 4 and Matlab code for use in the assignment. Due at 5pm om Nov. 27, 2017.

 

 

 

Term Project

Term Project 1. Due on Oct. 30th.

 

Mid-term Exam Information

Date and time: 2-3pm on Friday, Oct. 20 at 204 Transportation Building.

Format: 50mins, it will be a semi-close-book exam. Please do not bring textbook, or lecture notes with you. A collection of review summary slides will be posted online one week before the exam. During the exam, these summary lecture notes will be provided along with the actual exam sheet. 

Content covered: Chapter 1 and 2 as defined on NPRE435 website. Please see here for review slides.

 

 

Final Information

Date, time and location: December 15th, 2017. 8-11 am, 204 Transportation Building.

Format: Open book. You could take your textbook, lecture notes and calculator to the exam. The use of PC should be strictly limited for looking up online lecture notes.

A collection of review slides can be found here.

 

 

Grading

Homework 30%

Mid-term exam: 20%

Quizzes: 20%

Final exam: Exam 30%