|20||Real Time Fire Escape Plan
Current fire escape routes are rigid and do not adapt to quickly changing situations during a fire. Fire alarms will tell you only that there is a fire, but not where that fire is located. If a fire has engulfed the escape route, already frightened people can panic and be trapped in a building without knowledge of where to go.
- Our solution would be to employ a system which would contain 2 parts. The first part would be a set of sensors which would monitor the temperature and smoke levels at various points around the building. This data would be relayed to a master board which would communicate with each sensor in the building.
- The building’s existing fire alarm would be connected to this master logger board
- Heat resistant temperature sensor
- Accurate smoke detector
- Wifi connectivity from external sensor array to master logger and from master logger to app
- The second part of the project would be to develop an application which would take this sensor data and determine an optimal path through the building to escape the fire. It would include the ability to select a starting position and would update in real time to show inaccessible paths due to high smoke and fires.
- Once the fire alarm goes off, all sensor data is tracked and saved on this app. This allows for a temperature trend for each room to be recorded locally on each user’s phone and if a sensor fails, previous data will determine if the room is safe to go into.
- This way people who lose connection to the wifi do not lose any data about the fire that was previously recorded
- There will be 2 PCB’s manufactured for this solution.
- One that governs the master logger, receiving data from the sensor array, and transmitting it to an app.
- The other will be a board to transmit the sensor data to that master logger
- The sensor array and master logger boards will be hardwired into the main power of the building while also having a battery backup system
- Master Logger Board - This subsystem will ping each of the sensor modules intermittently over Wi-Fi in order to ensure connectivity of the entire system. When a sensor is triggered, the logger will capture the event using a microcontroller and send the location of the triggered sensor and the data it measured to a phone application.
- Sensor array board(s) - Smoke and Heat Detector. This subsystem will measure the temperature of the room and measure the air quality to determine if smoke is present. We will utilize a thermocouple (https://media.digikey.com/pdf/Data%20Sheets/Digilent%20PDFs/240-080_Web.pdf) for the measurement of the room temperature and a smoke detection module such as the following: https://www.amazon.com/SUKRAGRAHA-Detector-Module-Arduino-Genuino/dp/B01F2X3VY6.
- There ideally will be multiple of these boards made and placed around a building
- All of the components surrounding the sensors will be heat shielded
- Power Subsystem - This subsystem will convert wall power or battery power to the necessary power and control voltages. The system will rely on wall power and use the battery power as a backup.
- Mobile Application - Includes a mapped version of the building and paths are created utilizing optimal path finding algorithms. Assisted with wireless communications to update in real time to adapt to danger.
Criterion for Success
- Developed application with a displayed blueprint of the building and a display of the path to take. This path should lead through minimal fire and smoke. The path will also update to the changing situation.
- Simulated data can be used as input to determine functionality.
- Successful transmission of data from external sensor to master logger
- Successful transmission of data from master logger to app.
- App saves temp and smoke data in local memory
- According to https://www.ready.gov/home-fires. At eye level, temperatures can reach 600 degrees Fahrenheit. So as long as the sensors can withstand a temperature of 500-600 degrees Fahrenheit, failure of a sensor is a non-issue. This is due to the master logger saving the temperature of the room from when the sensor was functional.