# Title Team Members TA Documents Sponsor
32 NESLA Coil
Julian Goldstein
Payton Baznik
Xusheng Zhao
Zipeng Wang design_review
A traditional Nintendo Entertainment System creates 8-bit game sounds using an Audio Processing Unit known as the RP2A03/RP2A07 chips. The sound composition of tunes that are played by the NES and systems of that era primarily consists of square and triangle waves meant to be output on an analog speaker. Instead of using an analog speaker as our sound output medium, we would like to use the electrical discharge of a Tesla Coil.

Our overall project goal is to create a Tesla Coil that uses solid state devices and is able to modulate its discharge frequency in accordance with the register contents of the NES APU, so that the sound emitted by the electrical discharge matches the sound being output by the APU.

The way that we would get the contents of the NES APU in real time is through an open-source emulator. One such emulator that could work is FakeNES. We would run a modified version of FakeNES on a Raspberry Pi and change the Software sound module, so that it can send sound register contents to the GPIO module. Then we will design another circuit to read the contents of the GPIO module and change that digital signal into the sound corresponding wave that should be emitted by the discharge sounds of the Tesla Coil. The discharge sounds can be controlled by properly interrupting the switching circuit that drives the coil's primary side.

As far as safety is concerned, we will be building the coil at such a scale where the discharge is not large enough to pose a problem.

One major problem I can see us having to overcome in this project is combining the multiple sound channels, so that they can be output on a single coil. The way we will overcome this issue is by playing all of the channels out of the coil in a round-robin format. That way each channel can contribute to the air vibration that we interpret as sound simultaneously. We would make the round-robin switching of channels occur at such a high frequency that the attenuation of sound between the switching is not significant enough to affect the sound.

While musical Tesla coils do exist, none exist such that they seek to model the APU output of the NES directly. In addition, there exists no Tesla Coil drivers that seek to modulate the Triangle wave of the NES's APU, most musical Tesla Coils are only designed to output sounds that are square waves. We will achieve the Triangle Wave output by feeding our switching circuit that produces square waves into an integrator and feeding the output of the integrator into the coils primary.

Wireless IntraNetwork

Daniel Gardner, Jeeth Suresh

Wireless IntraNetwork

Featured Project

There is a drastic lack of networking infrastructure in unstable or remote areas, where businesses don’t think they can reliably recoup the large initial cost of construction. Our goal is to bring the internet to these areas. We will use a network of extremely affordable (<$20, made possible by IoT technology) solar-powered nodes that communicate via Wi-Fi with one another and personal devices, donated through organizations such as OLPC, creating an intranet. Each node covers an area approximately 600-800ft in every direction with 4MB/s access and 16GB of cached data, saving valuable bandwidth. Internal communication applications will be provided, minimizing expensive and slow global internet connections. Several solutions exist, but all have failed due to costs of over $200/node or the lack of networking capability.

To connect to the internet at large, a more powerful “server” may be added. This server hooks into the network like other nodes, but contains a cellular connection to connect to the global internet. Any device on the network will be able to access the web via the server’s connection, effectively spreading the cost of a single cellular data plan (which is too expensive for individuals in rural areas). The server also contains a continually-updated several-terabyte cache of educational data and programs, such as Wikipedia and Project Gutenberg. This data gives students and educators high-speed access to resources. Working in harmony, these two components foster economic growth and education, while significantly reducing the costs of adding future infrastructure.