# Title Team Members TA Documents Sponsor
Pranav Saboo
Rahul Harikrishnan
Saud Tahir
Akshatkumar Sanatbhai Sanghvi design_document4.pdf
# Automatic NBA Game Clock Stopper

Team Members:
- Rahul Harikrishnan (rahulh2)
- Pranav Saboo (psaboo2)
- Saud Tahir (saudtt2)

# Problem

Within the last two minutes of an NBA game, the game clock is supposed to stop after each made shot. However, as viewers, we have seen delays in the manual stopping of the clock due to human reaction speed. An accurate stoppage of time is crucial for close games as every tenth of a second matters.

# Solution

We want to develop a system that will track when the ball goes through the hoop and send a signal to a receiver which will stop the game clock. There exist basketball machines that use optical sensors to detect when a ball goes through a hoop. However, this system is dependent on the fact that only the basketball will be near the hoop at all times and that the ball has no chance of going through the hoop from below. As a result, the single optical sensor is only suited for shooting practice rather than a real game. In a real game, athletes are trying to block shots, make layups from right below the basket, and fight for rebounds. This could falsely trigger the optical sensor. In the case of the problem, this would then falsely stop the time. We instead propose to use a system that consists of three sensors near the basket.

One sensor, an infrared sensor, would be placed right above the rim and behind the glass to detect the distance to determine if the basketball is within the range of the circular area of the rim. Another sensor, an optical sensor, is located at the bottom of the rim-backboard junction. This sensor’s primary function would be to determine when the ball clears the rim.

A third sensor will also be needed at the rim-backboard junction. This will be a thermal sensor with the primary function to determine if the ball or a player's hand is passing through the bottom sensor. All three of these sensors will work together to determine if a shot is made. At this point, a signal will be transmitted to a receiver that stops the game clock.

# Solution Components

## Subsystem 1 - Score Detection
For the score detection to work, we will implement a 3 sensor system:
Sensor 1: Infrared sensor that can detect the ball on the other side of the backboard.
Sensor 2: Optical sensor that detects an object below the rim.
Sensor 3: Thermal sensor to make sure the object detected by the optical sensor is not a hand.

## Subsystem 2 - Clock Control
The signal data from the score detection system will be sent to a microcontroller that is attached to the game clock. The microcontroller will run software that determines if a shot is made. The software will detect a made shot if sensor 1 is triggered before sensor 2 and sensor 3 doesn’t detect body heat signatures. After determining a made shot, the microcontroller will stop the clock.

# Criterion for Success
The final product will be considered successful if it meets the following criteria:
- Should be able to detect a shot from 10-degree increments along the 3 point line and from random points within the court.
- Should be able to detect a dunk where the player hangs on to the rim and a layup
- Should be able to reject a hand mimicking a made shot or attempting a rebound.
- Stop signal should be sent within 0.1 sec of the made shot, a marked improvement from an average human reaction speed of around 0.25 sec.

Interactive Proximity Donor Wall Illumination

Sungmin Jang, Anita Jung, Zheng Liu

Interactive Proximity Donor Wall Illumination

Featured Project

Team Members:

Anita Jung (anitaj2)

Sungmin Jang (sjang27)

Zheng Liu (zliu93)

Link to the idea:


The Donor Wall on the southwest side of first floor in ECEB is to celebrate and appreciate everyone who helped and donated for ECEB.

However, because of poor lighting and color contrast between the copper and the wall behind, donor names are not noticed as much as they should, especially after sunset.

Solution Overview:

Here is the image of the Donor Wall:

We are going to design and implement a dynamic and interactive illuminating system for the Donor Wall by installing LEDs on the background. LEDs can be placed behind the names to softly illuminate each name. LEDs can also fill in the transparent gaps in the “circuit board” to allow for interaction and dynamic animation.

And our project’s system would contain 2 basic modes:

Default mode: When there is nobody near the Donor Wall, the names are softly illuminated from the back of each name block.

Moving mode: When sensors detect any stimulation such as a person walking nearby, the LEDs are controlled to animate “current” or “pulses” flowing through the “circuit board” into name boards.

Depending on the progress of our project, we have some additional modes:

Pressing mode: When someone is physically pressing on a name block, detected by pressure sensors, the LEDs are controlled to

animate scattering of outgoing light, just as if a wave or light is emitted from that name block.

Solution Components:

Sensor Subsystem:

IR sensors (PIR modules or IR LEDs with phototransistor) or ultrasonic sensors to detect presence and proximity of people in front of the Donor Wall.

Pressure sensors to detect if someone is pressing on a block.

Lighting Subsystem:

A lot of LEDs is needed to be installed on the PCBs to be our lighting subsystem. These are hidden as much as possible so that people focus on the names instead of the LEDs.

Controlling Subsystem:

The main part of the system is the controlling unit. We plan to use a microprocessor to process the signal from those sensors and send signal to LEDs. And because the system has different modes, switching between them correctly is also important for the project.

Power Subsystem:

AC (Wall outlet; 120V, 60Hz) to DC (acceptable DC voltage and current applicable for our circuit design) power adapter or possible AC-DC converter circuit

Criterion for success:

Whole system should work correctly in each mode and switch between different modes correctly. The names should be highlighted in a comfortable and aesthetically pleasing way. Our project is acceptable for senior design because it contains both hardware and software parts dealing with signal processing, power, control, and circuit design with sensors.

Project Videos