This page lists several basic mathematical concepts, data types, data structures, and algorithms that are typically covered in CS 173 and CS 225, and covered in more detail in CS 374, with pointers to the corresponding Wikipedia entries. We assume you are already familiar with all of them. You can use any of these in your homework or exam solutions without providing further details or citing any source.
For detailed review of any of these topics, we strongly recommend using an actual textbook or one of the following online resources. (Beware that Wikipedia occasionally makes some very strange choices.)
Discrete Mathematics

Elementary algebra

Logarithm identities

Naive set theory

Binary relations, including functions, equivalence relations, and partial orders

Propositional logic (T, F, ¬, ∧, ∨, ⇒, ⇔) and firstorder predicate logic (∀, ∃)

Modular arithmetic
 Elementary discrete probability: Uniform vs. nonuniform distributions, expectation, variance, conditional probability

Asymptotic notation (o, O, Θ, Ω, ω); comparing asymptotic growth rates

Evaluating simple summations (at least asymptotically)

Basic proof techniques: direct, indirect, exhaustive case analysis, contradiction

Induction (or equivalently, proof by minimal counterexample), especially strong induction and structural induction

Recurrences

Graphs (both undirected and directed),
trees,
directed acyclic graphs
Abstract data types
Elementary data structures
You may use any of these data structures in your homeworks and exams without providing further details or citing any source. If you use a small modification of one of these data structures, just describe your changes; don't regurgitate the original data structure details.
Elementary algorithms
You may use any of these algorithms in your homeworks and exams without providing further details or citing any source. If you use a small modification of one of these algorithms, just describe your changes; don't regurgitate the original algorithm details.